CLL address: L2 improvement

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CLL address: L2 advancement. 2 November 2004 Florencia Franceschina. What do we concentrate on when we contemplate (L2) improvement? Formative successions Instruments that cause these groupings ( ?transition speculations). What are the successions of L2 improvement?.

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CLL address: L2 advancement 2 November 2004 Florencia Franceschina

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What do we contemplate when we think about (L2) improvement? Formative arrangements Mechanisms that cause these successions ( transition speculations)

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What are the groupings of L2 advancement? NB: It is critical to separate rate and course of advancement while breaking down formative information. Case : Morpheme arrange thinks about (Dulay and Burt, 1973, 1974; Bailey, Madden and Krashen, 1974)

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Dulay and Burt (1974)

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Example : The procurement of question development Pienemann, Johnston and Brindley (1988) 1. A puppy? 2. The young men toss the shoes? 3. What the puppy are playing? Is the photo has two planets on top? 4. Where is the sun? 5. How would you say [proche]? 6. It " s better, isn " t it? Why can " t you go? Could you disclose to me what the date is today?

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Example : The obtaining of nullification Schumann (1979) No bike. No have any sand. I no like it. He wear " t like it. I wear " t can sing. You can not go there. He was not upbeat. She wear " t like rice. It doesn " t work. We didn " t have dinner. I didn " t went there.

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L1 versus L2 formative groupings There are a few likenesses and a few contrasts Example : Dulay, Burt and Krashen (1982), Meisel, Clahsen and Pienemann (1981)

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Dulay and Burt (1974)

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Adult versus tyke L2 improvement They are very comparative, albeit a few contrasts have been found in rate and course of advancement of various age bunches Example : Compare Dulay and Burt (1974) and Bailey Madden and Krashen (1974)

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*Dulay and Burt (1974) ** Bailey et al. (1974)

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L1 consequences for L2 improvement On rate of advancement Dulay and Burt (1974) on linguistic morphemes Schumann (1982) on refutation Gilbert and Orlovic (1975) on articles Keller-Cohen (1978) on yes/no inquiries On course of advancement Zobl (1982) on articles

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Context of securing impacts on L2 advancement Virtually no impacts as far as course of advancement Dulay and Burt (1973) Pienemann (1989) Pica (1983) Perkins and Larsen-Freeman (1975) Some impacts of guideline on rate of procurement Pienemann (1989)

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Dulay and Burt (1973)

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Methodological issues How would it be a good idea for one to gauge dialect improvement? - Emergence measure - Mastery (exactness) rule

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Explaining formative groupings According to Gregg (1996), formative arrangements can be clarified as: Environmental Reductive Teleological Psycholinguistic

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Theories of L2 advancement (a.k.a. move speculations) 1. General learning standards (non-measured) 2. Secluded learning instruments

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1. Non-secluded speculations Based on general learning standards Example : - theory testing - automaticity - inferencing and so forth. LA= securing of a complex psychological expertise

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2. Secluded speculations UG-based Example : Subset Principle (Wexler and Manzini, 1987) Other Example : Communicative Competence Theory (e.g., Canale and Swain, 1980; Bachman, 1990)

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Subset Principle (e.g., Wexler and Manzini, 1987)

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Communicative dialect capability (e.g., Canale and Swain, 1980; Bachman, 1990)

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Current issues in UG-based hypotheses of L2 improvement The underlying state face off regarding: Minimal Trees (Vainikka and Young-Scholten, 1994, 1996, 1998) versus Full Transfer/Full Access (Schwartz and Sprouse, 1994, 1996)

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The endstate banter about: Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (Prevost and White, 2000) versus Fizzled Functional Features Hypothesis (Hawkins and Chan, 1997)

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Reading Hawkins, R. 2001: Second Language Syntax. A generative presentation . Oxford: Blackwell. (Part 2)

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References Bachman, L. F. 1990: Fundamental contemplations in dialect testing . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bailey, N., C. Incense and S. Krashen 1974: Is there a 'characteristic succession' in grown-up second dialect learning? Dialect Learning 24: 235-243. Canale, M. what's more, M. Swain. 1980: Theoretical bases of informative ways to deal with second dialect instructing and testing. Connected Linguistics 1, 1: 1-47. Dulay, H. what's more, M. Burt. 1973: Should we show youngsters sentence structure? Dialect Learning 23, 245-258. Dulay, H. furthermore, M. Burt 1974: Natural groupings in kid second dialect procurement. Dialect Learning 24: 37-53. Dulay, H., M. Burt and S. D. Krashen. 1982: Language two . New York: Oxford University Press. Gregg, K. R. 1996: The legitimate and formative issues of SLA, in W. C. Ritchie and T. K. Bhatia, eds. The handbook of second dialect obtaining . San Diego: Academic Press. Pp. 49-81. Hawkins, R. what's more, C. Chan 1997: The incomplete accessibility of UG in second dialect procurement: the 'fizzled practical elements speculation's . Second Language Research 13, 3: 187-226. Meisel, J. M., H. Clahsen and M. Pienemann. 1981: On deciding formative stages in common second dialect obtaining. Contemplates in Second Language Acquisition 3, 2: 109-135. Perkins, K. also, D. Larsen-Freeman. 1975: The impact of formal dialect direction on the request of morpheme securing. Dialect Learning 25, 237-243.

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Pica, T. 1983: Adult obtaining of English as a moment dialect under various states of introduction. Dialect Learning 33, 465-497. Pienemann, M. 1989: Is dialect open to instruction? Connected Linguistics 10, 1: 52-79. Pienemann, M., M. Johnston and G. Brindley. 1988: Constructing an obtaining based technique for second dialect evaluation. Examines in Second Language Acquisition 10, 2: 217-243. Prévost, P. also, L. White. 2000: Missing surface affectation or impedance in second dialect securing? Prove from tense and assention. Second Language Research 16, 2: 103-133. Schumann, J. H. 1979: The securing of English refutation by speakers of Spanish: an audit of the writing, in R. W. Andersen, ed. The securing and utilization of Spanish and English as first and second dialects . Washington, DC: TESOL. Pp. 3-32. Schwartz, B. D. furthermore, R. A. Sprouse. 1994: Word request and nominative Case in nonnative dialect securing: a longitudinal investigation of (L1 Turkish) German interlanguage, in T. Hoekstra and B. D. Schwartz, eds. Dialect obtaining thinks about in generative sentence structure. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 317-368. Schwartz, B. D. furthermore, R. A. Sprouse. 1996: L2 intellectual states and the 'full exchange/full get to's model. Second Language Research 12, 1: 40-72.

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Vainikka, A. what's more, M. Youthful Scholten. 1994: Direct access to X'- hypothesis: prove from Korean and Turkish grown-ups learning German., in T. Hoekstra and B. D. Schwartz, eds. Dialect securing considers in generative punctuation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Vainikka, A. what's more, M. Youthful Scholten. 1996: Gradual advancement of L2 expression structure. Second Language Research 12, 1: 7-39. Vainikka, A. furthermore, M. Youthful Scholten. 1998: Functional classes and related components in tyke second dialect obtaining, in S. Flynn, G. Martohardjono and W. O'neil, eds. The generative investigation of second dialect procurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Wexler, K. what's more, M. R. Manzini. 1987: Parameters and learnability in restricting hypothesis, in T. Roeper and E. Williams, eds. Parameter setting . Dordrecht: Reidel. Pp. 41-76. Zobl, H. 1982: A heading for contrastive examination: the similar investigation of formative successions. TESOL Quarterly 16, 2: 169-183 .