Address 1 Ontology as a Branch of Philosophy

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Address 1 Ontology as a Branch of Philosophy

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A brief history of cosmology Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) Realist hypothesis of classifications Intelligible universals stretching out over all areas Central part of living beings Medieval scholastics: Aquinas, Scotus , Ockham, … (1200 – 1600) Aristotelianism as philosophia perennis Common panscientific philosophy and controlled vocabulary (Latin)

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A brief history of metaphysics Descartes (1596 – 1650) Skeptical uncertainty starts subversion of power, ascent of epistemology Central part of mind Dualism of psyche and matter Kant (1724 – 1804) Reality is mysterious Metaphysics is unthinkable We can just know the semi anecdotal spaces which we ourselves make

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A brief history of cosmology Brentano (1838 – 1917) Rediscovery of Aristotle Methods of logic and of science are one and the same Husserl (1859 – 1938) Inventor of formal philosophy as a train particular from formal rationale Showed how logic and science had gotten to be disengaged from the 'life world' of customary experience

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The Four Phases of Philosophy quick practical wariness otherworldliness progress intrigue

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First Cycle Thales to Stoicism and Pyrrho, Neo-Pythagoreans, Aristotle Epicureanism Eclectics Neo-Platonists

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Second Cycle up to Scotism Ockham, Lull, Aquinas Nominalists Nicholas of Cusa

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Third Cycle Bacon, Rationalists Hume, Berkeley, Kant Locke Reid German Idealism

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A brief history of philosophy Wittgenstein 1 (ca. 1910 – 1918) Author of Tractatus Bases philosophy on formal rationale in reductionistic atomism Vienna Circle (1922 – ca. 1938) Schlick , Neurath , Gödel, Carnap , Gustav Bergmann … Centrality of rationale to reasoning Construction of logic from either material science or sensations as base

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A brief history of cosmology Wittgenstein 2 (ca. 1930 – 1951) Centrality of dialect and of dialect amusements Metaphysics = dialect goes on vacation British Ordinary Language logic Philosophical issues to be illuminated by the investigation of the workings of dialect Speech Act Theory (J. L. Austin, 1911-1960)

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A brief history of philosophy Quine (ca. 1930 – 1951) Ontological duty (examine not: what there is , but rather: what sciences accept there is when intelligently formalized) Analytical transcendentalism (from ca. 1980): Chisholm, Lewis, Armstrong, Fine, Lowe, … beginnings of a rediscovery of mysticism as first theory What next?

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Fourth Cycle (Continental) Brentano Husserl Heidegger Derrida and Polish School the French

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Fourth Cycle (Analytical) Frege Vienna Circle Wittgenstein 2 Rorty Wittgenstein 1 Quine Russell

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Each cycle starts with rediscovery of Aristotle and another hypothetical introduction From the third cycle set apart by creation of new trains 3. Exact common science 4. Brain science, rationale

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Fifth Cycle Analytical Metaphysics Ontology Rediscovery of Aristotle

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A case of a down to earth issue Increasingly, distributers are investigating approaches to tag logical writing in routes intended to make their substance all the more effortlessly open to PCs For maximal impact, a solitary arrangement of terms ought to be utilized for labeling all writing distributed in a given area How do we choose the arrangement of terms ('philosophy') for every space?

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Most effective metaphysics wander up to this point $100 process. put resources into writing and database curation utilizing the Gene Ontology (GO) over 11 million comments relating quality items (proteins) portrayed in the UniProt, Ensembl and different databases to terms in the GO

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GO gives a controlled arrangement of representations for use in clarifying information and writing that is multi-species multi-disciplinary multi-granularity, from particles to populace

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The GO and its sister ontologies are organized representations of the areas of atoms, cells, ailments ... which can be utilized by analysts as a part of a wide range of orders who are centered around one and the same natural reality

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The objective: virtual science predictable (non-excess) explanation total (added substance) comment yielding, by incremental strides, a virtual guide of the whole of reality that is available to computational thinking

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This objective is feasible in the event that we have a typical metaphysics structure information is retrievable information is practically identical information is integratable only to the extent that it is explained utilizing a typical controlled vocabulary – look at the part of seconds, meters, kilograms … in binding together science

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To accomplish this end we need to take part in something like theory is this the correct approach to compose the top level of this bit of the GO? how does the top level of this philosophy identify with the top levels of other, neighboring ontologies?

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Aristotle's Metaphysics The world is composed through sorts/universals/classes which are progressively sorted out

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This holds, as well, of the organic world

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Porphyrian Hierarchy

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Linnaean Hierarchy

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creature fledgling From Species to Genera canary

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has skin eats inhales moves has wings can fly has quills can sing is yellow From Species to Genera creature fowl species-variety chain of command as surmising machine canary

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has skin eats creature inhales moves has wings has blades flying creature fish can fly can swim has plumes has gills can sing canary is yellow From Species to Genera

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has wings can fly has quills From Species to Genera has skin eats creature inhales moves feathered creature X can sing canary is yellow species-family pecking order as deduction machine

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Question: Why are species-family orders great approaches to speak to the world for motivations behind thinking? Reply: They catch the way the world is (Aristotelian authenticity)

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Transcription is_a natural process Transcription part_of quality expression

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Species-variety trees can be spoken to likewise as guide prefer parcels If Aristotelian authenticity is correct, then such segments, when effectively assembled are straightforward to the truth past

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creature winged animal From Species to Genera canary

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creature fledgling canary From Species to Genera

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Alberti " s Grid c.1450

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Ontologies: windows on the universals actually

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Artist's Grid as through a straightforward framework

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creature fowl angle canary ostrich Species-Genera as Map/Partition canary

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substance living being creature feline siamese species, genera vertebrate frog examples

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Aristotle's Metaphysics is centered around items ( things, substances, life forms ) The most imperative universals in his philosophy are substance universals bovine man shake planet which relate to what a thing is at all times at which it exists

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For Aristotle, the world contains additionally mischances which relate to how a thing is sooner or later at which it exists: = what holds of a substance for each accidens scorching suntanned turning

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Accidents, as well, instantiate genera and species Thus mishaps, as well, shape trees of more noteworthy and lesser simplification

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Accidents : Species and occasions quality shading red R232, G54, B24 this individual mishap of redness (this token redness – here, now)

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Nine Accidental Categories quid? substance quantum? amount quale? quality advertisement quid? connection ubi? put quando? time in quo situ? status/setting in quo habitu? habitus quid agit? activity quid patitur? enthusiasm

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John = relations of inherence (uneven existential reliance) hunger S ubstances are the bearers of a ccidents

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Aristotle 1.0 a philosophy perceiving: substance tokens accident tokens substance sorts accident sorts

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Aristotle " s Ontological Square Universal Particular

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Some savants acknowledge just piece of this four class metaphysics

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Standard Predicate Logic – F(a), R(a,b) ... All inclusive Particular

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Bicategorial Nominalism Universal Particular

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Process Metaphysics Universal Particular

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truth be told anyway we require more than the ontological square Not everything in actuality is either a substance or a mishap

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Positive and negative parts negative part or opening ( not made of matter) positive part (made of matter)

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Niches, situations are gaps

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Places are gaps

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Places are gaps

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Nine Accidental Categories quid? substance quantum? amount quale? quality promotion quid? connection ubi? put quando? time in quo situ? status/setting in quo habitu? habitus quid agit? activity quid patitur? enthusiasm

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Places For Aristotle the place of a substance is the inside limit of the encompassing body (for illustration the inside limit of the encompassing water where it meets a fish " s skin) For openings, we require an augmentation of Aristotle's transcendentalism

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gap A h ole in the ground Solid physical limits at the floor and dividers yet with a top that is not made of matter:

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Holes include two sorts of limits b