Substance based Interpretations of Test Scores

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Content-based Interpretations of Test Scores Michael Kane National Conference of Bar Examiners Maryland Assessment Research Center for Education Success October, 2008

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Overview Argument-based structure for approval Three substance based understandings: discernible properties, operationally characterized qualities characteristics Limitations of substance based legitimacy prove "Making one wonder"

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Validation To approve test score elucidations and utilizations is to assess the credibility of the translations and the propriety of the employments. Approval is in this manner unforeseen; the proof pertinent to approval relies on upon the proposed understandings and employments.

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Argument-based Framework for Validation

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Interpretations/Uses of scores keeping in mind the end goal to assess a translation, it is important to indicate what it claims. What surmisings are being draw? What principles of deductions are being depended on? What supporting suspicions are being made? The arrangement used to indicate the translation and utilizations is not essential. That they be indicated is fundamental.

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Argument-based Approach to Validation The interpretive contention determines the elucidations and employments of the test exhibitions regarding the derivations and suppositions used to get from a man's test execution to the conclusions and choices in view of the test outcomes. The legitimacy contention gives a basic assessment of the interpretive contention.

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Toulmin's Model of Inference Datum  [ warrant ]  so{Qualifier} guarantee  Backing special cases

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Warrants as Generic Inferences

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Characteristics of the Interpretive Argument "Casual" - Involves substantive derivations and suspicions - not simply intelligent or factual inductions and suppositions. "hypothetical" - does not demonstrate the decisions, but rather builds up an assumption for them. "speculative" - conclusions are indeterminate. "defeasible" – can be upset specifically cases.

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Criteria for Validating/Evaluating Interpretive Arguments Clarity of the interpretive Argument Coherence of the interpretive contention Plausibility of Inferences Plausibility of Assumptions

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Asking the Right Questions A fundamental stride in approval is the unmistakable, express, and finish determination of the proposed elucidations and employments of test scores. Without a reasonable and finish comprehension of the proposed elucidations and utilizations, validators actually don't realize what they are doing. To assess/approve the cases in view of test scores, it is imperative to realize what is being guaranteed.

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Three Distinct Content-based Interpretations: Observable characteristics Operationally characterized properties Traits

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A Family of Content-based Interpretations A group of firmly related qualities that infer a lot of their significance from substance spaces (Observable Attributes, Operational Definitions, and Traits). These characteristics are intriguing in themselves. What's more, they delineate the reliance of approval on the subtle elements of the proposed elucidations and employments.

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Observable Attributes Some sort of conduct is of intrigue An objective space (TD) of conceivable perceptions (regularly vast and fairly fluffy) is indicated. The objective score (TS), the normal esteem over the TD for the individual is taken to be the estimation of the noticeable trait (OA) for the individual. Since it is not for the most part conceivable to watch the majority of the perceptions in the TD, the TS must be evaluated utilizing tests from the TD.

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Possible Observations Observable traits are manners. They report a propensity to react somy to some sort of boost or to perform somehow given an undertaking. Every conceivable perception in the TD includes some assignment or jolt, a few states of perception, some specific situation, some reaction, and a classification of the reaction (e.g., great, satisfactory, minimal, lacking).

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Notes on OAs are "detectable" as in they are normal values over (huge) spaces (or sets) of potential perceptions. They are inductive synopses. OAs don't require a clarification for the perceptions, and they don't accept any inactive characteristic that records for the perceptions. Be that as it may, they don't discount clarifications regarding speculations, idle qualities, and so forth. Or maybe, they welcome clarification.

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What Shapes TDs? Why do we incorporate a few perceptions and not others in the TD? Commonsense necessities: exhibitions required in an occupation, wear, or other action Theoretical setting: exhibitions serve a similar part or are represented similarly by a hypothesis. Encounter: exhibitions appear to hang together However, once the TD is determined, it characterizes the discernible characteristic.

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Examples of Observable Attributes Performance in shooting free tosses in ball Performance in reacting fittingly to composed materials in English Performance in an occupation Performance in an exchange or calling Tendency to react somehow to some sort of jolt

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Measuring Observable Attributes Typically, it is not achievable to draw irregular or delegate tests from the TD. Or maybe, an estimation technique is characterized as far as a subset of the TD, from which we can draw irregular or agent tests. I will allude to this subset of the TD characterizing the estimation methodology as the universe of speculation (UG) for the system. I will allude to a man's normal esteem over the UG as the individual's universe score (US).

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Interpretive Arguments for OAs Evaluation: from perceptions to a watched score (OS) Generalization: from the watched score (OS) to a universe score (US) Extrapolation: from the universe score (US) to the objective score (TS)

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Evaluation Generalization Extrapolation Expert judgment supporting scoring guideline Generalizability concentrate on Criterion-related information think about, examinations of connections between UG exhibitions and TD exhibitions Validity Arguments for OAs

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Operational Definitions now and again, OA s might be characterized as far as a space from which it is conceivable to draw arbitrary or agent tests, and the characteristic can be operationally characterized as far as an estimation technique. For such operationally characterized traits ( ODAs ), there is no extrapolation to a more extensive area, and in this manner no requirement for proof supporting extrapolation. So approval is much less demanding for an ODA than it is for a comprehensively characterized OA .

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Interpretive Arguments for Operationally Defined Attributes Evaluation: from perceptions to a watched score (OS) Generalization: from the watched score (OS) to a universe score (US)

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Uses of Operational Definitions An operationally-characterized trait is translated as far as expected test execution. Any surmisings about non-test exhibitions will for the most part require particular measure related confirmation. An ODA can likewise be utilized as a marker for a hypothetical develop, yet this utilization requires build related legitimacy confirm.

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Traits Trait definitions fuse target spaces of conceivable perceptions, yet include suspicions about hidden causal qualities, that record for execution in the objective area. Therefore, quality elucidations are much wealthier than the translations of noticeable traits or operationally characterized characteristics.

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Trait Language 1 An attribute is a demeanor to act or perform somehow in light of a few sorts of boosts or assignments, under some scope of conditions. A great part of the importance of the quality is given by the area of perceptions over which the manner is characterized, however characteristic elucidations likewise expect, in any event verifiably, that some hidden or inactive property represents the watched regularities in execution (Loevinger, 1957).

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Trait Language 2 Messick characterized an attribute as: "a moderately stable normal for a man ... which is reliably showed to some degree when applicable, regardless of extensive variety in the scope of settings and conditions" (Messick, 1989, p 15). Attribute dialect has a tendency to be verifiably causal, yet no particular instruments portray how the quality impacts execution or conduct.

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Traits One can think about a characteristic as a detectable quality with an additional measurement, the hidden idle property that records for the watched exhibitions. On the other hand, one can think about a dormant "attribute" (e.g., tension, quantitative inclination), and after that indicate a comparing target area of conceivable perceptions. In any case, we have an objective area and a hidden inactive characteristic.

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Interpretive Arguments for Traits Evaluation: from perceptions to a watched score (OS) Generalization: from the watched score (OS) to a universe score (US) Extrapolation: from the universe score (US) to the objective score (TS) Explanation/Implications: from the objective score (TS) to the inert characteristic and to any ramifications connected with the quality

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Validating Trait Interpretations Validation requires backing for the scoring and speculation derivations, and commonly for an extrapolation deduction. Likewise, approval calls for sponsorship for any extra derivations connected with the characteristic cases: Unidimensionality Agreement with hypothesis (as in Cronbach and Meehl, 1955) Relationship to different factors Fit to an IRT display

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Limitations of Content-based Validity Evidence

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Criticisms of the Content Model Content-based judgments about substance importance and representativeness are normally made amid test improvement and have a confirmationist inclination. Messick (1989) saw content-legitimacy prove as assuming a minor part in approval bec