Environmental change adjustment: Land-based essential industry

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Environmental change adjustment: Area based essential industry. Robyn Dynes, Jeremy Bryant, Paul Newton, Val Snow, Mark Lieffering (AgRresearch) Hamish Chestnut, Derek Wilson (Plant and Nourishment) Tim Payn and Dwindle Beets (Scion). Land-based commercial ventures. Send out profit $25b Livelihood

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Environmental change adjustment: Land-based essential industry Robyn Dynes, Jeremy Bryant, Paul Newton, Val Snow, Mark Lieffering (AgRresearch) Hamish Brown, Derek Wilson (Plant & Food) Tim Payn & Peter Beets (Scion)

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Land-based enterprises Export profit $25b Employment 156 000 individuals in Ag, ranger service & Fishing 75 000 in nourishment & drink make ? sustenance fares to world NZ encourages 17 million individuals [Source: INFOS arrangement http://www.stats.govt.nz/items and-administrations/data sets/AgResearch investigation. http://www.stats.govt.nz/diagnostic reports/work showcase measurements 2008.htm Food send out: AgResearch investigation from: MAF SONZAF (2008), in the same place year to 31 March 2008

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Land-based essential industry = $25b [Source: INFOS arrangement http://www.stats.govt.nz/items and-administrations/data sets/AgResearch examination)

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Our upper hand Temperate developing conditions moderately free of irritations and maladies proficient creation frameworks adaptable and imaginative makers agriculturists are reliably adjusting Adverse climate occasions Commodity costs Labor lack

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1990 2001 2008

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Planted Forests – environmental change effects, alleviation and adjustment Impacts: Productivity, weeds, nuisances and sicknesses, fire, wind Mitigation: Carbon Forests Energy Forests Lower GHG impression efficiency Adaptation: Breeding procedures Siting and silviculture New innovations

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Focus on contagious ailments Cyclaneusma and Dothistroma Needle cast organisms Prefers warm sticky conditions Lower needle mass = slower development Sites with Cyclaneusma normal 20% underneath greatest efficiency Dothi can be dealt with (copper oxychloride) Up to 200,000ha showered every year No treatment for Cyclaneusma Adaptation reactions Spraying Breed tolerant genotypes Plant distinctive species Move the woodlands

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Possible effect of situations Scenarios propose diverse effects on the timberlands Regional contrasts are obvious

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Adaptation reactions for parasitic ailments Breed safe genotypes Likely just to balance 25% of contagious effect Slow process Change species Other species don't get tainted Only great if efficiency as high concerning ebb and flow species Move the backwoods Focus on hotter destinations where precipitation remains @ today's levels Land cost and foundation issues More chemicals Only works for dothistroma Added costs, bring down gainfulness

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Adaptation Strategies for Planted Forests Improved comprehension of atmosphere consequences for woodland forms top to bottom situation examination to drive advancement of adjustment techniques National way to deal with advancement of adjustment methodologies An arrangement of methodologies will be required and will include: New genotypes, new timberland frameworks, foundation of woodlands on various locales

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Broad section of land editing – the arable part Grain Wheat, Barley, Oats, Maize, Peas Small seeds Grass, Clover, Vegetable, Forage Vegetable Potato, Sweet corn, Onions, Squash, Brassica Forages Cereal, Annual ryegrass, Brassica, Maize Pastoral Phase Grass/clover pastures

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Climate change – the effect on trimming Increased generation potential Doubling CO 2 will expand development 30% Decreased length Crops grow speedier in higher temperature Crop developing regions move Increased supplement request More N, P, K and S expected to misuse expanded generation potential

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Potential generation (completely flooded) High carbon Rapidly decarbonising Current

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Water !!! East drift Hotter, windier, less rain, greater inconstancy Increased water request in inundated harvests Decreased yield in dryland crops Greater possibility of product disappointment (different years) West drift More rain (by and large), more factor (???)

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Water utilize and creation + ET CO 2 - Rain CO 2 - Irrig + ET - Rain - Fertilizer

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Adaptation in regions getting dryer with sufficient water Irrigated Increased product request More proficient water system frameworks More effective harvest species Irrigation plans Dryland Less precipitation Drought evasion procedures More strong products Financial cradles Ensure supplement supply Exploit higher yield potential Longer span crops Opportunities for numerous harvests every year Wider assortment of appropriate harvests

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Fruit Crop Impacts & Adaptations Poor blossoming from deficient winter chilling New assortments with lower chill necessities Increased vegetative force Pruning methodologies, overshadowing root stock, substance blooming Fruit harm from extraordinary occasions (eg hail storms, sunburn) Longer developing season giving higher quality and yield Southward development of generation

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Pastoral area adjustment – sheep followed/checked per ewe put to smash Adaptive techniques: brushing frameworks field quality Nitrogen ultrasonic pregnancy examining Hogget mating. Enhanced ewe productivity. [Source: sheep numbers and sheep numbers spreadsheets at http://www.maf.govt.nz/measurements/peaceful/domesticated animals numbers/, AgResearch examination. A long time are to 30 June] (Photo: AgResearch)

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Pastoral cultivating – contextual analysis Dairy Farm

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High/low carbon versus contextual analysis Dairy Farm

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Manawatu dairy ranches Clay & sandy soils 2030 2080

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Soil guide of some portion of the Manawatu Palmerston North Coastline Manawatu River Sandy soils Clay soils Tararua Ranges 15 km Source: http://gisportal.landcareresearch.co.nz

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Pasture creation - increments in Manawatu Annual generation Tons dry matter 2000 10.7 2030 12.0 2080 12.4 2000 9.4 2030 10.6 2080 11.5 EcoMod

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Pasture quality decays change field structure attack C4 grasses

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Pastoral cultivating – contextual investigation Dairy Farm Manawatu 128 hectares calve mid to late July 260 days in drain 340 kg milksolids/bovine Conservation of feed and silage purchase in maize silage no nitrogen compost

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Cows deliver less drain in spite of developing more grass Less vitality = less drain

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Production and gainfulness decrease

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Adaptation-the open doors more grass lower quality = cows must be permitted to eat more = high hazard additionally decrease quality Target = coordinating field cover

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Adaptation-the open doors Adaptation

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Adaptation catches the advantages more drain Adaptation techniques Earlier calving date = more drain in July/Aug Higher stocking rates = more drain general change with time

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Adaptation – the primary concern More Cows eat more Cows drain for more

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Adaptation – Land-based ventures obscure: weeds, bugs, maladies frameworks unpredictability unintended results group & controller impacts Adverse occasions –high cost to business & group storms flooding fire

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Adaptation: Land-based enterprises adjustment = incremental change = the same old thing undertaking versatility will rely on upon chief reactions Perceived hazard Tools and procedures to react apparatuses, innovation and learning accessible in numerous zones More devices required Higher specialized aptitudes required for achievement receiving these instruments inside complex cultivating frameworks cultivating inside various weights is the genuine test. unintended results GHG creation Impact of control Community desires Current techniques will just partially meet tomorrows issues

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Thank you

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Acknowledgments Barbara Hock, Lucy Manning – Geospatial investigation Lindsay Bulman – foundation data on parasitic ailments FRST for support through the 'Relief of Climate Change and the Role of Forests' Program CO4X04706