Morals, Fraud, and Internal Control

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. . Destinations for Chapter 3. Wide issues relating to business ethicsEthics in bookkeeping data systemsEthical issues in data technologyManagement extortion and representative fraudCommon misrepresentation strategies in manual and PC based systemsThe desires hole between monetary articulations clients and auditors\' abilitiesSAS No. 78Implications of PC innovation on the interior control str

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Section 3 Ethics, Fraud, and Internal Control

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Objectives for Chapter 3 Broad issues relating to business morals Ethics in bookkeeping data frameworks Ethical issues in data innovation Management misrepresentation and representative extortion Common extortion procedures in manual and PC based frameworks The desires crevice between budgetary articulations clients and reviewers' capacities SAS No. 78 Implications of PC innovation on the inward control structure

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Business Ethics Why would it be advisable for us to be worried about morals in the business world? Morals are required when clashes emerge - the need to pick In business, clashes may emerge between: workers administration partners Litigation

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Four Main Areas of Business Ethics

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Behavioral Stage Theory of Moral Development

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Computer Ethics… concerns the social effect of PC innovation (equipment, programming, and broadcast communications). What are the fundamental PC morals issues? Protection Security and exactness Ownership of property Environmental issues Equity in get to Artificial knowledge Unemployment and dislodging Computer abuse Internal control trustworthiness

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What is Fraud? Five Conditions of Fraud False portrayal - false explanation or exposure Material actuality - a reality must be considerable in instigating somebody to act Intent to mislead must exist The distortion probably brought about reasonable dependence upon data, which made somebody act The deception more likely than not created harm or misfortune

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2002 CFE Study of Fraud Loss because of extortion equivalent to 6% of incomes—roughly $600 billion Loss by position inside the organization: Other outcomes: higher misfortunes because of men, representatives acting alone, workers with propel degrees

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Enron, WorldCom, Adelphia The Underlying Problems Lack of Auditor Independence : a uditing firms likewise drew in by their customers to perform nonaccounting exercises, for example, actuarial administrations, inward review outsourcing administrations, and counseling Lack of Director Independence : chiefs who have an individual relationship by serving on the sheets of different organizations, have a business exchanging relationship as key clients or providers, have a budgetary relationship as essential stockholders or have gotten individual advances, or have an operational relationship as representatives Questionable Executive Compensation Schemes : here and now investment opportunities as pay plan result in here and now techniques went for driving up stock costs to the detriment of the association's long haul wellbeing. Improper Accounting Practices : a trademark basic to numerous budgetary proclamation misrepresentation plans. Enron made expand utilization of uncommon reason elements to shroud liabilities through shaky sheet bookkeeping. WorldCom exchanged transmission line costs from current cost records to capital records, permitting them to concede some working costs and report higher profit.

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Sarbanes-Oxley Act Signed into law July 2002 Its chief changes relate to: The production of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) Auditor freedom—more detachment between an association's validation and non-inspecting exercises Corporate administration and obligation—review panel individuals must be autonomous and the review advisory group must regulate the outer inspectors Disclosure necessities—increment backer and administration divulgence, including off-the-adjust things New government violations for the annihilation of or messing with archives, securities extortion, and activities against informants

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Why Fraud Occurs Fire needs... Oxygen Fuel Spark

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Why Fraud Occurs Situational Pressures a worker is encountering money related troubles Available Opportunities poor inside controls Personal Characteristics individual ethics of individual representatives

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Employee Fraud Committed by non-administration staff Usually comprises of: a representative taking money or different resources for individual pick up by going around an organization's arrangement of inner controls

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Management Fraud It is executed at levels of administration over the one to which inward control structure relates. It much of the time includes utilizing the money related explanations to make a figment that a substance is more sound and prosperous than it really is. On the off chance that it includes misappropriation of advantages, it every now and again is covered in a labyrinth of complex business exchanges.

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Fraud Schemes Three classifications of extortion plans as indicated by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners: A. deceitful explanations B. defilement C. resource misappropriation

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A. False Statements Misstating the monetary proclamations to improve the duplicate show up than it is Usually happens as administration misrepresentation May be attached to concentrate on here and now money related measures for achievement May likewise be identified with administration extra bundles being fixing to budgetary explanations

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B. Defilement Examples: gift unlawful tips irreconcilable situations monetary blackmail Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977: demonstrative of degree of debasement in business world affected bookkeeping by requiring exact records and interior controls

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C. Resource Misappropriation Most normal kind of misrepresentation and frequently happens as representative extortion. Cases: making charges to cost records to cover robbery of advantage (particularly money) lapping: utilizing client's check from one record to cover burglary from an alternate record exchange misrepresentation: erasing, modifying, or adding false exchanges to take resources

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Computer Fraud Theft, abuse, or misappropriation of benefits by adjusting PC information Theft, abuse, or misappropriation of benefits by changing programming Theft or illicit utilization of PC information/data Theft, debasement, unlawful duplicating or annihilation of programming or equipment Theft, abuse, or misappropriation of PC equipment

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Using the general IS show, clarify how extortion can happen at the distinctive phases of data preparing?

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Data Collection Fraud This period of the framework is most helpless in light of the fact that it is anything but difficult to change information as it is being gone into the framework. Additionally, GIGO (waste in, junk out) advises us that if the information is off base, preparing will bring about off base yield.

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Data Processing Fraud Program Frauds changing projects to permit illicit access to and additionally control of information records annihilating projects with an infection Operations Frauds abuse of organization PC assets, for example, utilizing the PC for private issue

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Database Management Fraud Altering, erasing, tainting, crushing, or taking an association's information Oftentimes led by displeased or ex-representative

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Information Generation Fraud Stealing, misleading, or abusing PC yield Scavenging looking through the junk jars on the PC community for disposed of yield (the yield ought to be destroyed, yet much of the time is not)

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Internal Control Objectives According to SAS No. 78 Safeguard resources of the firm Ensure exactness and dependability of bookkeeping records and data Promote proficiency of the company's operations Measure consistence with administration's endorsed strategies and techniques

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Modifying Assumptions to the Internal Control Objectives Management Responsibility The foundation and support of an arrangement of inside control is the obligation of administration. Sensible Assurance The cost of accomplishing the goals of inside control ought not exceed its advantages. Strategies for Data Processing The systems of accomplishing the targets will shift with various sorts of innovation.

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Limitations of Internal Controls Possibility of fair mistakes Circumvention by means of agreement Management abrogate Changing conditions- - particularly in organizations with high development

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Exposures of Weak Internal Controls (Risk) Destruction of an advantage Theft of a benefit Corruption of data Disruption of the data framework

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The Internal Controls Shield

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Preventive, Detective, and Corrective Controls

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Auditing Standards Auditors are guided by GAAS (Generally Accepted Auditing Standards) 3 classes of principles general capability models field work benchmarks detailing gauges For particular direction, reviewers utilize the AICPA's SASs (Statements on Auditing Standards)

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SAS No. 78 Describes the relationship between the firm's… inside control structure, inspector's appraisal of hazard, and the arranging of review methods How do these three interrelate? The weaker the inside control structure, the higher the surveyed level of hazard; the higher the hazard, the more reviewer techniques connected in the review. AIS is especially worried with the interior control structure.

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Five Internal Control Components: SAS No. 78 1. Control condition 2. Chance evaluation 3. Data and correspondence 4. Checking 5. Control exercises

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1: The Control Environment Integrity and morals of administration Organizational structure Role of the top managerial staff and the review board of trustees Management's approaches and logic Delegation of obligation and specialist Performance assessment measures External impacts - administrative offices Policies and works on overseeing HR

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2: Risk Assessment Identify, dissect and oversee dangers applicable to monetary announcing: changes in outside condition dangerous remote markets huge and quick development that strain inward controls new product offerings rebuilding, scaling back changes in bookkeeping strategies

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3: Information and Communication The AIS ought to create top notch data which: identif