Vehicular Pollution Control - Indian Perspective and Future Strategies

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Vehicular Pollution Control - Indian Perspective and Future Strategies By SANCHITA JINDAL Joint Director Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India BAQ - 2004

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OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Set Up for Control of Vehicular Pollution Chronology of Events Fuel Quality Improvements Pollution Monitoring System Road Traffic Management Economic Instruments Role of Judiciary Action Plans For Air Quality Improvement Key Issues-Future Strategies

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MULTISECTORAL HANDLING Ministry Of Environment And Forests - Environment Protection Act, 1986 - Emission Standards - Central Pollution Control Board - State Pollution Control Boards Ministry of Road Transport and Highways - Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR) - Safety and Emission Standards - State Transport Departments Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas - Fuel Quality Specifications - Under BIS Ministry of Heavy Industries - ARAI-Prototype Approvals for new vehicles-both for wellbeing and emanation

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Chronology of Events EMMISION NORMS The Journey Began in 1984 when the State of Maharashtra presented standards for sitting CO and free increasing speed smoke. 1989-the above standards were reached out for the whole nation 1991 - Exhaust mass emanation standards for fuel for just CO & HC for vehicles underneath 3.5 ton GVW were presented -Full load and free speeding up smoke directions for diesel vehicles likewise presented. 1992-Exhaust mass emanation standards for diesel vehicles/motors above 3.5 ton GVW presented

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1995 - Mandatory fitment of exhaust system for fuel Passenger autos in Metropolitan urban communities. 1996 - stringent standards for gas (CO, HC+NOx) and diesel vehicles presented. - Cold begin outflow test for diesel vehicles underneath 3.5 ton GVW. 1998 Cold begin outflow test for gas traveler autos presented 1999 - India 2000 (Equivalent to Euro-I) standards presented for passenger autos in National Capital Region (Delhi) In 2000 - Bharat Stage I standards for all classification of vehicles introduced -Bharat Stage II (Equivalent to Euro-II) standards for gasoline and diesel traveler autos presented in National Capital Region (Delhi) -Particulate point of confinement qualities presented for diesel vehicles

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Future Emissions Norms In April 2005 Bharat Stage II (Equivalent to Euro-II) standards for gas and diesel traveler autos a will be presented in whole nation Bharat Stage II standards for 2 and 3 Wheelers will come into compel in whole nation Bharat Stage III (Equivalent to Euro-III) standards for fuel and Diesel vehicles will be presented in 11 urban communities

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Norms CO( g/km) HC+ NOx)(g/km) 1991 14.3-27.1 2.0(Only HC) 1996 8.68-12.40 3.00-4.36 1998 4.34-6.20 1.50-2.18 India arrange 2000 2.75 0.97 Bharat organize II 2.2 0.5 Bharat Stage-III 2.3 0.35 (joined) Bharat Stage-IV 1.0 0.18 (consolidated) Emission Norms for Petrol Passenger Cars

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Emission Norms for Diesel Passenger Cars Emission in g/km YAER CO HC+NO X PM 1991 16.5 02.1 -1996 05.7 02.2 -2000 02.72 0.97 0.14 EURO II 01.00 0.7 0.08 EURO III 0.64 0.56 0.05 EURO IV 0.5 0.3 0.025

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Norms CO ( g/km) HC+ NOx (g/km) 1991 12-30 8-12 ( just HC) 1996 04.5 03.6 India arrange 2000 02.0 Bharat arrange II in 2005 01.6 01.5 Bharat Stage-III proposed in 2008 1.0 Emission Norms for 2 wheelers

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Norms CO ( g/km) HC+ NOx (g/km) 1991 12-30 8-12 ( just HC) 1996 6.75 5.4 India arrange 2000 4.0 2.0 Bharat arrange II in 2005 2.5 Bharat Stage-III in 2008 1.25 Emission Norms for 3 wheelers-Petrol

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Norms CO (g/kwhr) HC (g/kwhr) NOx (g/kwhr) PM (g/kwhr) 1991 304 12 - 1996 5.0 2.0 - India arrange 2000 2.72 0.9 0.14 Bharat arrange II in 2005 0.85 0.01 0.64 Bharat Stage-III in 2008 0.7 0.05 Emission Norms for 3 wheelers-Diesel

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Norms CO (g/kwhr) HC (g/kwhr) NOx (g/kwhr) PM (g/kwhr) 1991Norms 14 3.5 18 - 1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 - India arrange 2000 standards 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 Bharat organize II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 Bharat Stage-III 2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10 Bharat Stage-IV 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02 Emission Norms for Heavy Diesel Vehicles

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IN-USE VEHICLES There are around 60 Million vehicles and every year around 0.5 million are included Based the vehicles deal information , the year insightful vintage populace of the vehicles is : 1971-1991 33% 1991-1996 21% 1996-2000 29% 2000-2001 08% 2001-2002 09%

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In-utilize Vehicle Emission Control Pollution Under Control (PUC) -Under Rule 115 (7) of Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR), 1989, engine vehicles are required to convey PUC Certificate to be given by an office approved for this reason by State Govt. Estimation of emanations from petrol vehicle is finished by gas analyser and if there should arise an occurrence of diesel vehicle outflow are measured by smoke meters. There is a rundown of endorsed merchants and models of PUC gear which is incorporated and flowed by ARAI, Pune.

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PUC - To guarantee that the being used vehicles are kept up well and less emanating Gasoline vehicles are tried for Idle CO outflow Diesel vehicles are tried for Free quickening smoke

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S.No Vehicle sort Present Proposed CO % HC (ppm) CO % HC (ppm) n Hexane proportional 1 2 Wheelers ( 2/4 stroke) & 3 wheelers ( Pre year 2000) 4.5 - 4.5 9000 2 Wheelers ( 2-stroke) & 3 wheelers ( Post year 2000) 4.5 -  3.5 6000 3 2 & 3 Wheelers ( 4 stroke) ( Post year 2000) 4.5 - 3.5 4500 4 wheeler vehicles ( Post year 2000) ( Petrol/CNG/LPG) 3.0 - 3.0 1500 5 Bharat Stage-II agreeable Passenger autos/CNG Busses/LPG (Fitted with 3 way shut circle exhaust system) 4 GAS ANALYSER 3.0 - 0.5 750 Present and Proposed Emission Norms for In-utilize - vehicles

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Present PUC framework - Limitations Test methods and standards have not changed since presentation PUC Center administrators are not prepared Equipment not kept up/adjusted Proper test strategy not took after No all around characterized criteria for approving/enlisting PUC Center No reviewing of PUC Center Lack of brought together organization for co-appointment The quantity of vehicles experiencing PUC test is little because of nonappearance of control component to recognize vehicles getting away PUC No investigation of the information gathered Existing framework is inclined to altering Proper augmentation pipes particularly for 2&3 wheeler vehicles are not utilized Chances of spillages as a part of the framework prompting to low readings

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Free Acceleration Smoke Test - Issues Smoke readings vary with warming up of the vehicle. It is extremely hard to accomplish the predetermined 10 km warming up in the field to get the steady readings. The free quickening test is a transient test. (raising the speed from sitting to max rpm). The smoke readings may change contingent upon the way the quickening agent pedal is squeezed by different administrators. There is a protestation in the field that the smoke readings at various PUC focuses don't coordinate.

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Enhanced PUC framework CMVR reconsidered in February 2004-to be appropriate from October 2004 PUC framework modified Revision in Idle emanation standards in view of the year of vehicle make. Presentation of sit still HC outflow models Introduction of sit out of gear CO and HC discharge standards for CNG/LPG vehicles Will have enhanced test techniques for gas and diesel vehicles Four gas analyzer for better precision Measurement of Engine oil temperature and motor rpm for repeatable and steady smoke readings

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Enhanced PUC framework Improved hardware working conditions Compulsory AMC for min 5 yrs. Yearly restoration in view of AMC confirmation Training of PUC focus administrators by gear providers and standardize the total framework Calibration of hardware three times each year Communication ability with PC for information exchange and capacity

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Proposed Revisions in Smoke Meter Specifications Oil temperature and motor rpm estimation incorporated with the smoke meter. oil temperature above 60 °C will be utilized as a sign of motor warm-up. motor rpm will be measured to guarantee consistency of operation Smoke meter to distinguish the underlying 6 flushing cycles in light of the rpm estimation Software will guarantee the repeatability of the greatest rpm accomplished for every increasing speed inside + 300 rpm for 4 Wheelers and + 500 rpm for 3 wheelers. The smoke meter will give the signs to help the client for operation of the quickening agent pedal.

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4 gas analyzers v/s 2 gas analyzers Higher Accuracy of the Analyzer consequently decreasing estimation blunders Leak identification, low stream caution and HC hang up test improves exactness of the test outcomes Automatic gas adjustment at any rate once every day for which a different/inbuilt gas chamber is required. Arrangement for RPM estimation is required Provision for NOx gas examination for future necessities.

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Proposal for Effective Inspection and Certification Regime Dovetail the present PUC framework with I/C focuses Develop stacked mode emanation test techniques over the long haul Use innovations like Remote Sensing Device (RSD) as a supplement device to distinguish net dirtying vehicles Change Pass/fall flat cut off focuses progressively Involve overall population in recognizing the gross contaminating vehicles by sending the SMSs through cell phones or utilizing the toll free numbers

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Proposal for Effective Inspection and Certification Regime Introduce a proficient upkeep framework to correct the vehicles that have fizzled in the I/C focuses Introduce affirmation and review framework for repair workshops For the nature of the administrations by the test focuses, present review framework Develop a concentrated programming which is basic to all the I&C places for information exchange, stockpiling, information examination, transferring on a site, and so forth I&C gear makers and providers to prepare I&C administrators The legitimacy of the I/C focuses ought to be connected to 5 years AMC

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