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Assessment METHODS FOR QUALITY AND PRICE OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS Young W. Stop Agricultural Research Station Fort Valley State University Fort Valley, GA 31030-4313 And Department of Food Science and Technology The University of Georgia Athens, GA 30602

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Production of Quality Goat Milk and Its Products Fresh and ordinary goat drain from sound, legitimately bolstered and drained creatures, is a white, dark fluid with a marginally sweet taste which has for all intents and purposes no scent (Le Jaouen, 1987). Creation of value goat drain ought to begin at each ranch level, since flavor and nature of the drain can't be enhanced later in the preparing stage (Park and Guo, 2006). The fundamental guideline is that the better the drain, the better the handled items (Peters, 2000; Park and Guo, 2006). Drain quality is contrarily influenced by shameful taking care of from numerous elements, for example, encouraging, treatment of creatures earlier and amid draining, treatment of the drain amid and in the wake of draining, cooling and transportation, purification, preparing, bundling, and handling utensils (Peters, 1990; Haenlein, 1992). Off-flavor in goat drain can be credited to the sustains, weeds, rummages, chemicals, building materials, colostrum, estrus, mastitic drain, soiled utensils and strainer, unclean draining hardware, moderate cooling, scents from bucks, horse shelter or potentially drain room. Great administration of the whole ranch framework prompts to great quality drain. The prescribed draining system must be honed in a day by day schedule, keep up working and sterile hardware, have solid creatures, and utilize suggested cleanser, corrosive and sanitizers for cleaning and draining gear.

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Five noteworthy parameters are routinely checked by administrative offices for quality crude drain generation Nutritional constituents in drain. Substantial cell considers identified with mastitis. Microorganisms considers identified with clean practices. Defilement and pesticide deposit substance. Enhance, taste, appearance and temperature.

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Quality of Raw Milk tried by Individual Dairy Processing Plants Standard plate tally (SPC) Direct minuscule number (DMC) Freezing point assurance (Cryoscope) Presence of inhibitory substances (anti-microbial screening test) Sensory assessment Preliminary brooding (PI) – SPC Direct tiny physical cell check (DMSCC) Acid degree esteem (ADV) Laboratory sanitization tally (LPC) Thermoduric spore tally Fat substance Total solids substance (can likewise incorporate protein content) Sediment test

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Filteration of farmstead drain for further handling (Le Jaouen, 1987)

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3M Petrifilm Plate Techniques

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ADGA individuals on National Conference of Interstate Milk Shipments On the Problem of Somatic Cell Count lawful edges: (Cont'd) 4. The CMT can be utilized as a screening test however high tallies must be affirmed with the pyronine-Y recolor. 5. SCC levels of typical goat drain increment from Spring to Fall well over the bovine limit of 1 million/ml, beginning around 4 months in the wake of joking, agreeing with begin of estrus and late phase of lactation. 6. Effortlessly achievable SCC levels of 100,000 – 300,000 SCC/ml in dairy animals drain are bizarre in even excellent oversaw goat crowds.

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Total Aerobic Plate Count

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E. coli and Coliform numbers

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Yeast and Mold tallies

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Staphylococcus aureus tally

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Grade A crude drain for sanitization Temperature: Cooled to 45 o F (7 o C) or less inside two hours in the wake of draining, gave that the mix temperature after the first and ensuing milkings does not surpass 50 o F (10 o C). Bacterial limits: Individual maker drain not to surpass 100,000 for each ml. before mixing together with other maker drain. Not to surpass 300,000 per ml. as mixed together drain preceding pasteurization. Antibiotics: Individual maker drain: No discernible zone with the Bacillus subtilies strategy or equivalent. Blended drain: No perceptible zone by the Sarcina lutea Cylinder Plate Method or equivalent. Somatic cell check: Individual maker drain. Not to surpass 1,500,000 for each ml.

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Grade A sanitized drain and drain items Temperature: Cooled to 45 o F (7 o C) or less and maintained thereat. Bacterial points of confinement: 20,000 for every ml.* Coliform: Not to surpass 10 for every ml.: Provided that , on account of mass milk transport tank shipments, should not surpass 100 for each ml. Phosphatase: Less than 1 microgram for each ml. by the Scharer Rapid Method or equivalent. Antibiotics: No distinguishable zone by the Sarcina lutea Cylinder Plate Method or equivalent.

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Terms for Milk Quality – Cont'd B. Estimation of sharpness of drain: 1. Titratable Acidity : a. It is dictated by including NaOH (0.1 N) answer for raise the pH of the drain to around 8.3. b. One ml of the base equivalents 0.1% lactic corrosive. c. %TA = ml 0.1 N NaOH x .009 x 100/gram of test 2. SH (Soxhlet-Henkel) esteem: a. It demonstrates what number of ml of NaOH (25 mol/ml) are required to kill 100 ml of drain. One ml of 2% alcoholic phenolphthalein arrangement is included as pointer. b. SH estimation of new drain ranges 6.4 – 7.0 c. SH estimation of crude drain <5.0 shows mastitis. d. SH estimations of 8.0-9.0 gives acrid taste, and coagulate.

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Table 1. Least Pasteurization Temperature and Times __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Product Temperature Time _______________________________________________________________ 1. Drain 145 o F (62.8 o C) 30 minutes LTLT 161 o F (71.7 o C) 15 seconds STHT 191 o F (88 o C) 1 second UHT 194 o F (89 o C) 0.5 second 201 o F (94 o C) 0.1 second 204 o F (96 o C) 0.05 second 212 o F (100 o C) 0.01 second 2. Drain results of 150 o F 30 minutes 10% fat or more 166 o F 15 seconds or included sugar 191 o F 1 second (half/half, cream, 194 o F 0.5 second chocolate drain) 201 o F 0.1 second 204 o F 0.05 second 212 o F 0.01 second 3. Eggnog and 155 o F 30 minutes Frozen treat 175 o F 25 seconds Mixes 180 o F 15 seconds

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Quality Evaluation of Dairy Products/Cheeses Quality of dairy items are changed amid assembling, refrigeration, dispersion and capacity. Characteristics of all dairy items including cheeses are affected by a few parameters, for example, substance, microbiological, rheological and tangible scores of the items. Proteolysis and lipolysis are two essential procedures in cheddar maturing with an assortment of concoction, physical, microbiological, textural, and rheological changes which happen under controlled natural conditions. Concentrates on demonstrated that cheddar quality is incredibly affected by levels of peptides, amino acids, and free unsaturated fats coming about because of proteolysis and lipolysis.

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Milk Pricing System A. Butterfat differentials Pricing Butterfat differentials are the sum by which the cost of ranch drain is expanded or diminished for every "point" (0.1%) of butterfat test. The strategy used to ascertain butterfat differentials in many US Federal Milk Order markets is to duplicate the normal discount cost by 0.115 at Chicago, powerful Dec. 1, 1983 (USDA bolster cost for Grade A spread is $1.4325/lb) At this value, the butterfat differential for homestead drain is around 16.5 pennies (1.4325 x 0.115). Utilization of butterfat differentials to value cultivate drain expect that fat and solids-not-fat costs and substance vary together.

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Milk Pricing System B. Part evaluating Milk fat and protein are the two noteworthy variable constituents in drain. Lactose remains pixie consistent at around 5%, and minerals at around 0.7%, however protein and fat shift impressively between seasons. On the normal, cultivate dairy animals drain contains around 3.7% drain fat and 8.55% solids-not-fat, including around 3.2% protein. A one point (0.1%) change in drain fat test is typically connected with as 0.4 point (0.04%) change in solids-not-fat, and in protein.

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Milk Pricing System C. In Component Pricing System, goat drain ranchers have a detriment with protein: -Goat drain has higher N content than dairy animals drain, however the previous has higher nonprotein nitrogen, which gives great medical advantages, yet ensnared with a lower drain valuing. D. Calculation of 4% fat-revised drain (4%FCM) 4% FCM = 0.4 x kg drain yield + 15 x kg fat yield

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Milk Pricing System E. Item Prices The USDA buy costs for spread, nonfat dry drain, and cheddar are ascertained from the bolster cost for drain. Amid the time of October, 1980-December 1, 1983; The price tag for margarine, $1.49/lb; nonfat dry drain, $0.94/lb; and cheddar, $1.395/lb ($1.8628/lb; 1998) Per Hundredweight Milk ; an) A gross cost to plants per hundredweight of drain is $14.32. a) 4.48 lbs spread x $1.49 = $6.68 margarine esteem in 100 lbs drain. b) $14.32 - $6.68 = $7.64/8.13 = $0.94/lb USDA buy cost for nonfat dry drain .

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Average execution of dairy GOAT BREEDS in various nations __________________________________________________________________________________________ Country Lactation Yield (kg)________________ Goat breed length (day) Milk Fat 4% FCM____ Cyprus Damascus 255 510 20 504 France Poitevine 230 520 20 508 Greece Native 230 160 9 199 India Jamunapari 220 215 9 221 Norway Nordie 275 650 24 620 Switzerland Saanen 282 745 26 688 Turkey Kilis 270 270 13 303 USA Alpine 288 869 31 813 Nubian 288 710