Dim Vitality and the Progress of the Universe

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The Cosmic Calendar. Expansion 1016 GeV. Quarks Hadrons 1 GeV. Cores ... separations with time: a(t), maps out enormous history like tree rings guide out the ...

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Dim Energy and the Dynamics of the Universe Eric Linder Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

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Uphill to the Universe Steep slopes: Building up - Eroding endlessly -

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Start Asking Why, and... There is no division between the human world and cosmology, amongst material science and astronomy. ... ... Everything is alterable, the distance to the development of the universe.

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Our Expanding Universe Bertschinger & Ma ; graciousness Ma

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Our Cosmic Address Our Sun is one of 400 billion stars in the Milky Way world , which is one of more than 100 billion systems in the noticeable universe . Earth 10 7 meters Solar framework 10 13 m Milky Way system 10 21 m Local Group of worlds 3x10 22 m Local Supercluster of systems 10 24 m The Visible Universe 10 26 m

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The Cosmic Calendar Inflation 10 16 GeV Quarks  Hadrons 1 GeV Nuclei shape 1 MeV Atoms shape 1 eV [Room temperature 1/40 eV] Stars and cosmic systems first shape: 1/40 eV Today: 1/4000 eV

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Mapping Our History The unpretentious backing off and accelerating of the development, of separations with time: a(t) , maps out infinite history like tree rings delineate the Earth's atmosphere history. STScI

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Discovery! Speeding up information from Supernova Cosmology Project (LBL) realistic by Barnett, Linder, Perlmutter & Smoot (for OSTP) Exploding stars – supernovae – are brilliant signals that permit us to quantify decisively the development in the course of the last 10 billion years.

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Acceleration and Dark Energy Einstein says floating mass relies on upon vitality force tensor: both vitality thickness  and weight p , as +3p Negative weight can give negative "mass" Newton's 2 nd law: Acceleration = Force/mass R = - (4/3)G  R Einstein/Friedmann condition: a = - (4/3)G (+3p) a Negative weight can quicken the extension .. ..

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Negative weight Relation amongst  and p ( condition of state ) is crucial: w = p/ Acceleration workable for p < - (1/3) or w < - 1/3 What does negative weight mean? Consider 1 st law of thermodynamics: dU = - p dV But for a spring dU = +k xdx or an elastic band dU = +T dl

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Vacuum Energy Quantum material science predicts that the very structure of the vacuum ought to act like springs. Space has a " stretchiness ", or strain, or vacuum vitality with negative weight. Survey - Einstein : development speeding up relies on upon +3p Thermodynamics : weight p can be negative Quantum Physics : vacuum vitality has negative p "Tree ring" markers can delineate extension history, measure increasing speed, distinguish vacuum vitality.

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cf. Tonry et al. (2003) quickening decelerating Cosmic Concordance Supernovae alone  Accelerating development  > 0 CMB (in addition to LSS)  Flat universe   > 0 Any two of SN, CMB, LSS  Dark vitality ~75%

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Frontiers of Cosmology Us STScI 95% of the universe is obscure!

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Dark Energy Is... Dim Energy Is!!! 70-75% of the vitality thickness of the universe Accelerating the development, similar to expansion at 10 - 35 s Determining the destiny of the universe ! 70-75% of the vitality thickness of the universe 95% of the universe obscure! ! Quickening the development, similar to swelling at 10 - 35 s Repulsive gravity! ! Deciding the destiny of the universe Fate of the universe! Is this baffling dim vitality the first cosmological consistent  , a quantum zeropoint ocean?

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What's the Matter with Energy? Why not simply bring back the cosmological consistent (  )? At the point when physicists compute how huge  ought to be, they don't exactly hit the nail on the head. Whole of zeropoint vitality modes: /8G = <0> ~  h /2   d 3 k  (k 2 +m 2 ) ~ k max 4 If Planck vitality cutoff, <0> ~ c 5/G 2 h ~ 10 76 GeV 4 - If k max ~  QCD cutoff, 10 - 3 GeV 4 - But require 10 - 47 GeV 4 !

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What's the Matter with Energy? They are off by an element of 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

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What's the Matter with Energy? This is unobtrusively called the adjusting issue. Be that as it may, it deteriorates: on the grounds that the cosmological steady is consistent, it is the same all through the historical backdrop of the universe. Why didn't it assume control over the development billions of years prior, before worlds (and us) had the opportunity to shape? On the other hand why didn't it hold up until the far future, so today we could never have recognized it? This is known as the occurrence issue.

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Cosmic Coincidence Size=2 Size=1/4 Size=1/2 Size=4 Think of the vitality in  as the level of the quantum "ocean". At most times ever, matter is either suffocated or dry. Dim vitality Matter Today

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Key Issue for Physics Today The universe is not basic: So perhaps nor is the quantum vacuum (or attraction)?

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On Beyond ! On past ! It's about time that you were demonstrated That you truly don't have the foggiest idea about everything to be known. - à la Dr. Seuss, On Beyond Zebra We have to investigate promote boondocks in high vitality material science, attraction, and cosmology. New quantum material science? Pith (nuclear particles, light, neutrinos, dull matter, and… ) , Dynamical vacuum New gravitational material science? Quantum gravity, supergravity, additional measurements? We require new, very exact information

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Type Ia Supernovae Exploding star, quickly as splendid as a whole world Characterized by no Hydrogen, yet with Silicon Gains mass from sidekick until experiences atomic runaway Standard blast from atomic material science SCP Insensitive to beginning conditions: "Stellar amnesia" Höflich, Gerardy, Linder, & Marion 2003

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Standardized Candle Brightness Time after blast Brightness lets us know remove away (lookback time) Redshift measured lets us know extension consider (normal separation between cosmic systems)

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What makes SN estimation uncommon? Control of efficient instabilities At each minute in the blast occasion, every individual supernova is "sending" us a rich stream of data about its inside physical state. Lightcurve & Peak Brightness Images  M and  L Dark Energy Properties Redshift & SN Properties Spectra information investigation material science

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History & Fate

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Weighing the Universe quickening decelerating

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Cosmic Concordance cf. Tonry et al. (2003) quickening decelerating

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Nature of Dark Energy "Stretchiness" (EOS) Matter Density

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What We Know " 'Most humiliating perception in material science's – that is the main fast thing I can say in regards to dim vitality that is additionally valid." - Edward Witten Dark vitality causes speeding up - "negative gravity" - through its emphatically negative weight. Characterize condition of state proportion by w(z)=pressure/(vitality thickness) Today's best in class: w const = - 1.05 +0.15 - 0.20  0.09 (Knop et al. 2003) [SN+LSS+CMB] w const = - 1.08 +0.18 - 0.20  ? (Riess et al. 2004) [SN+LSS+CMB] But shouldn't something be said about progression? Blandly expect time variety w 

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What We (Don't) Know Assuming w is consistent can cheat, even to test if dim vitality is a cosmological steady  . On the off chance that we don't search hard for the time variety w  then we don't take in the material science! We need to do it right. Longer "lever arm" (higher redshift, more history) Many more supernovae, all the more decisively High exactness

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Hubble Diagram ~2000 SNe Ia 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.2 redshift z 10 billion years

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Supernova Properties Astrophysics Understanding Supernovae Nearby Supernova Factory G. Aldering (LBL) Cleanly comprehended astronomy prompts to cosmology

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High Redshift Supernovae Discover Reference Subtract - >SN! Riess et al./STScI

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Looking Back 10 Billion Years STScI

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Looking Back 10 Billion Years

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Looking Back 10 Billion Years To see the most inaccessible supernovae, we should see from space. A Hubble Deep Field has filtered 1/25 millionth of the sky. This resemble meeting 10 individuals and attempting to comprehend the many-sided quality of the whole populace of the US!

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Dark Energy – The Next Generation Dedicated dim vitality test SNAP: Supernova/Acceleration Probe

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Design a Space Mission HDF GOODS wide 9000 the Hubble Deep Field in addition to 1/2 Million  HDF • Redshifts z=0-1.7 • Exploring the last 10 billion years • 70% of the age of the universe profound c o l o r f u l Both optical and infrared wavelengths to see through tidy.

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Astronomical Imaging Focus star projectors Guider Visible NIR Spectrograph port Calibration projectors Half billion pixel cluster 36 optical CCDs 36 close infrared locators JWST Field of View Larger than any camera yet built

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New Technology CCD's New sort of CCD finder created at LBNL Radiation hard for space ; High proficiency Able to be joined into substantial exhibits

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Astrophysical Uncertainties For exact and exactness cosmology, need to distinguish and control deliberate vulnerabilities.

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SN Population Drift

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Controlling Systematics

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Weighing Dark Energy SN Target

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Exploring Dark Energy Needed information quality Dark vitality hypotheses Current ground based contrasted and Binned recreated information and a specimen o