COMM 4471: Communication in Marriage and Family

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Characterizing Family. Structuralby social part Task-Orientationby objectives

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COMM 4471: Communication in Marriage and Family Spring 2005

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Defining Family Structural by social part Task-Orientation by objectives & results Transactional by correspondence practices & results

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Structural Definitions Nuclear Stepfamily Single-Parent Blended Gay-Parents Multigenerational Adopted

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Task-Oriented Definitions Family of Origin Family of Orientation Dysfunctional Abusive Effective

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Transactional Definitions Supportive Alcoholic Cold Neglecting Open Conversation arranged Authoritarian

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Consequences of Definitions Social Legal Psychological Theoretical

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Defining Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication is any cooperation between at least two people who trade data, make significance, and impact each other and who through this procedure make social reality for themselves as well as other people and make and keep up associations with each other.

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Circumplex Model of Family Functioning Two essential measurements: Adaptability (Flexibility) Cohesion Facilitating Dimension Communication

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Functioning Family Functioning Dimension: versatility/union

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Family Communication and Facilitation

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Criticisms of Olson's Model Lack of confirmation for curvilinear connections of versatility and union with working "Correspondence" to a great extent underconceptualized

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McMaster Model Problem Solving Communication Family Roles A-reaction Functioning A-contribution Behavior Control Family Behavior

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Culture and Family Comm. Correspondence happens in a social setting Culture instantiated through individual brain research Culture instantiated through gathering hones Culture instantiated through societal structures

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Dimensions of Culture Hofstede independence cooperation manliness womanliness control separate Hall Context Space & time Control-capitulation to the inevitable

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Correlates of Culture Demographics Family measure & sythesis SES Values & Beliefs Religion Political introduction Gender parts

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4 Theoretical Approaches Systems Theory Symbolic Interactionism Attachment Theory Dialectic Theory

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Communication Systems Wholeness : Complete relationship of parts Nonsummativity : System is more than total of parts Openness : Systems don't exist in disconnection Equifinality : Outcomes are not pre-dictated by sources of info Hierarchy : Systems connect with different frameworks

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Evaluation of Systems Theory Strengths Emphasis on entire family & association Clarification of part of outer variables Weakness Complexity and association make testable speculations troublesome or outlandish

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Symbolic Interactionism Humans capacity to interface typically with each other is their characterizing trademark and has vital ramifications for Meaning, Language, and Thought. (Mead, 1934)

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Core Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism Meaning Root source of human conduct Arises from human cooperation Language Social images, holders of significance Thought Symbolic, Reflective & Perspective Taking

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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis a.k.a. Phonetic Determinism Thought relies on upon dialect Ungrammatical thought or thought w/o vocabulary is unimaginable Consequently, our dialect figures out what and how we think

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Examples of Language Independent Thought Emotions (outrage, abhor, love, and so on.) Visualizations Spatial Orientation Pre-verbal Infants Inability to articulate a thought Memories of sounds, scents, torment, and so forth

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Sapir-Whorf and Reality Most considered autonomous dialect Even if thought somehow managed to rely on upon dialect, dialect is generative Appearance of thought=language consequence of dialect offices checking thought for prompt correspondence

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Attachment The Strong Bond between Infant & Primary Care Giver Innate (imparted to numerous different creatures) Necessary for Survival & Development Characterized by Multi-Stage Reaction to Separation

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Attachment (cont.) Necessary for Survival & Development Secure Base Function Save Haven Function Characterized by Multi-Stage Reaction to Separation: Protest Despair Detachment Rebound from Detachment

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Ainsworth's Attachment Styles ( dictated by Strange Situation ) Secure - quickly resentful, then glad & fulfilled Avoidant - no passionate reaction, then maintain a strategic distance from mother Anxious/Ambivalent - exceptionally annoyed, then at first avoidant

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PCG's Behavior and Infant's Attachment Style Reliably Available  Secure Attachment Reliably Unavailable  Avoidant Attachment Unreliably Available/Over Involved  Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment

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Kobak's Attachment Dimensions Secure Dismissing Preoccupied Dismissing Avoidant Preoccupied Insecure

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Bartholomew's Four Attachment Styles Model of Self _ + Preoccupied Secure Model Of Other _ Fearful Avoidant Dismissive

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Infant Complementary Parent or Other Adult Exploration System effectively overpowered Adult Reciprocal Peer & Sexual Partner Separation must be disjoin to evoke connection like response Comparing Infant and Adult Attachment

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Relational Dialectics Unlike Hegelian Dialectics, no synthetical determination Most urgent in 3 measurements Affiliation Predictability Intimacy Dialectics are inner & outside

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INTERNAL Connectedness – Separateness Certainty – Uncertainty Openness – Closedness EXTERNAL Inclusion – Seclusion Conventionality – Uniqueness Revelation – Concealment Internal & External Dialectics

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More Functional Spiraling Alteration Segmentation Integration Reaffirmation Less Functional Denial Disorientation Balance Recalibration Responses to Dialectics

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Ways of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning

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Classical Conditioning Before: CS -/ - > R; UCS - > R Conditioning: UCS + CS - > R After: CS - > R CS = Conditional Stimulus UCS = Unconditional Stimulus R = Response

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Operant Conditioning Associating conduct with a result through support Reinforcement positive = nearness of result negative = nonappearance of result Outcome positive = attractive (reward) negative = undesirable (discipline)

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Social Learning Associating conduct with a result through perception Observation of nearness/nonattendance of positive & negative results endorsement/objection to conduct by socialization specialists (incl. huge others)

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Children's Learning Children learn in every one of the 3 ways Because social learning requires broad intellectual portrayals of social world, social learning is reliant on kid's psychological improvement

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Active versus Latent Learning Passive Learning center of customary learning hypotheses how condition is organized figures out what is found out Active Learning center of social learning hypothesis how learner develops (sees) condition figures out what is found out

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Family Interaction Norms Quantity of time spent No extraordinary changes in most recent 20 years Quality of time Type of movement Warmth & closeness of collaboration Increase in most recent 20 years?

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Family Communication Patterns Associated with Shared Social Reality Two intends to share reality (McLeod &Chaffee) idea (discussion) introduction socio (congruity) introduction

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Two Dimensions of Family Communication Concept (Conversation) - Orientation -open dialog of thoughts -family values connection Socio (Conformity) - Orientation -kids' selection of parental qualities -family values similarity

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Significance of Conversation Orientation encourages socialization of kids increments psychological many-sided quality approves youngsters' conclusions, upgrades self-regard

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Significance of Conformity Orientation decides self-governance and autonomy of kids decides kids' basic leadership

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Family Types Protective Consensual Conformity Orientation Laissez-Faire Pluralistic Conversation Orientation

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Assignment Think around 2 imperative ceremonies in your family and what they intend to you (i.e., the family) Write about it in 1-2 passages and bring to next class

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Family Routines & Rituals Routine: monotonous practices organizing family life without significance or uncommon essentialness Ritual: redundant practices that offer intending to, celebrate, or respect family connections

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Family Rituals Patterned Family Interaction Frequent, casual, regular cooperation Family Traditions Infrequent & family-particular, avow family's uniqueness Family Celebrations Infrequent, culture-particular, assert family's binds to group

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Small Group Exercise Share your stories of family customs In your gathering, figure out what sort of schedules or ceremonies were available in those stories and distinguish the typical capacities they satisfied

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Family Stories "records of family encounters reflecting convictions about families and social organizations" shared among relatives change after some time satisfy critical capacities

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Functions of Family Stories Referential: characterize family history Evaluative: connections, practices, group, society Socializing: of kids and new relatives (in-laws)

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Family Narratives = the type of stories Three Components Coherence Interaction Relationship convictions

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Family Secrets Information about families or relatives that are known to family yet kept from pariahs Determine enrollment Three sorts Taboos Rule infringement ordinary Shared versus singular privileged insights

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Rituals, Stories & Secrets Define family history, participation, values, bury

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