CDM Considerations and Opportunities in Cambodia: Energy Efficiency, Transport Renewable Energy

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National Workshop on Limit Improvement for the Perfect Advancement System 26-27 Walk 2003. CDM Contemplations and Opportunities in Cambodia: Vitality Productivity, Transport and Renewable Vitality. Andrew Williamson

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National Workshop on Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism 26-27 March 2003 CDM Considerations and Opportunities in Cambodia: Energy Efficiency, Transport & Renewable Energy Andrew Williamson Advisor to Department of Energy Technique (Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy

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Structure of Presentation Key inquiries… How can CDM help extends in Cambodia? How do CDM ventures 'work'? What openings exist in Cambodia? Vitality Efficiency CDM contemplations International Case Study Opportunities in Cambodia Transport Renewable Energy

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CDM Project Requirements A CDM extend must be… REAL (it will really decrease emanations) Measurable (the discharge funds can be evaluated) Additional (the reserve funds would not have occurred without the venture) Sustainable (characterized by host nation to incorporate ecological + group benefits, innovation exchange and so on)

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Energy Efficiency – CDM Considerations (1) The primary sorts of EE tasks are: Demand Side Example: Retrofit new productive lighting, diminish vitality misfortunes in process, present new effective apparatuses Supply Side Example: Improve effectiveness of generator, redesign transmission line and transformers to lessen misfortunes, update steam heater for more prominent proficiency Fuel Switching Example: Replace coal boilers with gas-terminated units, utilize biofuels rather than diesel. (* NOT atomic!)

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Energy Efficiency – CDM Considerations (2) Energy Efficiency (EE) extends normally lessen the vitality request per unit of yield and consequently offer different advantages of cost sparing and creation productivity EE ventures for CDM can include either overhauled or new hardware CDM Transaction expenses are high so frequently need to gather many undertakings under one CDM venture to make suitable EE activities are hard to standard, screen + check, and exceptional rules have been delivered to help computation Must first set up Emissions Baseline – the nursery emanations which would have happened in 'the same old thing', ie: if the CDM venture was not done. Little ventures (up to 15MW era limit or 15GWh/yr of proportional vitality funds) have exceptional improved standards and figurings

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Energy Efficiency – CDM Considerations (3) Monitoring and Verification – need to demonstrate that investment funds are genuine all through the venture This can be troublesome and expensive, particularly when numerous outflow sources are included (less demanding on single substantial tasks where execution can be measured straightforwardly) THUS crucial for powerful preparing and administration of administrators (incorporates guaranteeing that operation manuals for new hardware are given in Khmer dialect) Emissions Leakage – alludes to circumstance where old supplanted gear is sold to somebody who utilizes it somewhere else coming about expanded emanations somewhere else (so it decreases the general viability of venture).

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Energy Efficiency - International Case Study Bangladeshi Brick Kilns Project 20 new Brick Kilns Higher proficiency than standard ovens (new "Hoffman" outline) Uses regular gas instead of coal Baseline accept in all probability situation for block creation over next 10 yrs in Bangladesh Monitoring will include metering of real gas utilization + estimation of block generation Project Partners $ CDM Operator (arrange CDM financing + convey CERs to Investor) $ CDM Investor CERs … Could be: Owners' Association NGO Private Business Kiln Owners 20 different organizations (in Developed Country)

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Energy Efficiency - International Case Study Brick Kilns in Bangladesh

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Energy Efficiency - Cambodian Opportunities (1) Industrial Sector – sorts of administrators Breweries and Bottling Distillery (cassava?) Water Purification Laundries Brick Kiln Garment Factories Rice Mills Sugar Refinery Food Processing Animal Feed Factory Plywood Manufacturing Cement Works (?) Paper Mill Sewerage Pumping Cigarette Factories Plastics producer Galvanized Iron Roofing Paint Factory

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Energy Efficiency - Cambodian Opportunities (2) Opportunities – Industrial Sector Lighting – enhance plan (new fittings + reflectors), new innovation (tri-phosphor fluorescents, high weight sodium), control (clocks, sensors), sky facing windows + light wells/racks Boilers – enhanced outline, protect ducting, steam traps, warm recuperation to pre-warm bolster water Refrigeration – new refrigerants + ointments, upgrade settings, controls (clocks, sensors), channel format + zoning, new innovation Compressed Air – spill stop program (must be continuous), proficient spouts, unit estimating, enhance control (arranging, clocks, variable paces and so forth), position admission for cool air Electric Motors – supplant with high effectiveness engines, variable speed drives, enhance control (clocks, sensors, sit out of gear stop)

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Energy Efficiency - Cambodian Opportunities (3) Opportunities Building Design – introduction + outside overhangs + veneers + finishing to diminish sun powered pick up, protection, normal lighting, characteristic ventilation, building materials to lessen air-con stack, inside hues to decrease lighting load, twofold coated windows, airtight chambers + air blinds + rotating ways to limit air spills Lighting – enhance outline, new innovation (fittings + reflectors, low-vitality counterweights, dimmable fluorescents), computerize control (clocks, sensors), zoning Water Heating – concentrated units, sun oriented and gas as opposed to electric, warm pumps, protect ducting, warm recuperation from air-con, decrease water utilize (effective spouts, taps, showers), enhance settings (lessen temp) Air Conditioning – new refrigerants + oils, advance settings, controls (clocks, sensors), conduit design + zoning, new innovation, evade singular control-setting, roof fans where conceivable Commercial Buildings Hospitals Hotels Banks Office Buildings Government Offices Warehouses Restaurants Markets and Shops Schools

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Energy Efficiency - Cambodian Opportunities (4) Cogeneration (or "Joined Heat and Power"(CHP) Anywhere with both electrical and warming or cooling needs Especially: mechanical plants and business structures Service can be offered by existing IPP (conveys power AND steam/cool air!) Scenario 1: Garment Factory Electricity produced by on location diesel generators Modified so heated water recouped specifically from ''water coat" or warmth exchangers to pre-warm the production line boilers Big sparing in vitality expenses and emanations from coal-let go boilers Scenario 2: Commercial Building Electricity created by on location diesel generator Air molding compressors driven straightforwardly by second shaft on diesel motor OR: assimilation chillers utilize the recuperated warm from motors (as above) to create cool air

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Energy Efficiency - Cambodian Opportunities (5) Opportunities Building Design – introduction + outside canopies + exteriors + finishing to decrease sunlight based increase, common lighting, regular ventilation (move through, warmth depletes), building materials to lessen cooling load Cooking – gas cooking if conceivable, effective wood + coal stove plans, territory with great ventilation + isolate from living territories (to abstain from warming them) Lighting – utilize minimal fluorescents, inside hues to lessen lighting load, assignment lighting as opposed to entire space (eg: over cooking seat, kitchen table and so forth) Space Cooling – roof fans, sealable rooms for aircon Appliances – mindfulness programs: vitality productivity naming + remain by burdens, fridge settings + upkeep Street Lighting – plan + arrangement, high proficiency globules + fittings, advance clocks or sensors Residential Houses Apartment Blocks Rural cabins

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Transport - CDM Considerations Vehicle Efficiency Improve existing vehicles (better support, testing, directions) New innovation (present + energize its utilization through motivations + control) Fuel Substitution Biofuels (biodiesel, ethanol and so on) to diminish utilization of diesel and petrol Encourage regular gas + CNG utilize Electric + half breed vehicles (… and soon: energy units) Transport Efficiency Projects can be hard to quantify + check as outflow sources are by and large exclusive + versatile! CDM legitimacy ought to be checked. Transport System Efficiency Public transport frameworks (which are powerful) Trains for mass freight to/from ocean/air terminals Encourage and rearrange non-mechanized transport Plan towns, structures and occasions to enhance movement stream + lessen requirement for mechanized transport

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Transport - International Case Study Urban Busses in Yogyakarta, Indonesia Project Improve the vitality proficiency of open transport framework Replace motors on 200 of the armada of 500 transports Switch from diesel to either clean diesel, common gas or other (still in outline)

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Transport Opportunities for Cambodia (1) Biofuels Sustainable, renewable fuel source (for transport + generator sets) Biodiesel, Ethanol, crude vegetable oils (eg: palm oil in Marine diesel motors) Local creation from vitality crops Increase vitality autonomy Project Options Establish neighborhood fabricating plants in addition to vitality crops (innovation exchange + preparing) Demonstration extend with free/modest specimens to advance + pick up believability Public transport trial running on biofuels Incentives (appropriations, impose concessions) to transport organizations to utilize (eg: trucks, taxis, ships, trains) Promote + bring issues to light of advantages for condition + Cambodia

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Transport Opportunities for Cambodia (2) Private Vehicles Establish emanations controls + enlistment prerequisites Periodic vehicle investigations + stage in fines OR free tune-ups? Tune-up program: set up preparing program for administration focuses, and portable testing stations Efficiency naming on vehicles sold Public Transport Efficient transport framework around the real towns with administrations committed to schools, colleges + production lines As major interstates are enhanced, build up modest, solid and safe transport framework between significant towns +