Section 14 The Central Nervous System

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2. Historic points. Significant parts of the mind - cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstembrain weighs around 3 pounds, more in life structures understudies. . . . . 3. Cerebrum . Longitudinal crevice isolates 2 cerebral hemispheresFissures are profound groovessulci the shallow groovesgyri are the lifted folds surface layer of dim matter is known as the cortex, squash, noodle.

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Part 14 The Central Nervous System The mind is an inside for: 1. enrolling sensations 2. relating with put away data 3. settling on choices 4. making a move.

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Landmarks Major parts of the mind - cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem mind weighs around 3 pounds, more in life structures understudies

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Brain Longitudinal crevice isolates 2 cerebral sides of the equator Fissures are profound scores sulci the shallow notches gyri are the hoisted folds surface layer of dark matter is known as the cortex, squash, noodle

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Cranial Meninges Dura mater - peripheral, extreme film external periosteal layer against bone structures dural venous sinuses emptying blood out of mind strong structure shaped by dura mater falx cerebri Arachnoid mater is bug catching network filamentous layer Pia mater is a thin vascular layer disciple to forms of cerebrum The mind has a PAD around it that is constant with the _____ ____

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Cranial Meninges

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Brain Ventricles are Internal loads inside the CNS

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Cerebrospinal Fluid Clear fluid fills ventricles and trenches, it streams in the subarachnoid space Functions lightness - glides cerebrum so it impartially light insurance - pads from hitting within skull compound steadiness - flushes away squanders

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Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF is framed by the choroid plexuses and circles through the: ventricles, down focal channel of spinal line to subarachnoid space of rope and cerebrum, up to be consumed by the arachnoid villi of the dural sinus

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Clinical If CSF can't course or deplete appropriately a condition called hydro-cephalus (water on the mind) creates. liquid development causes expanded pressure on the mind, either internally or remotely Surgically depleting the ventricles and occupying the stream of CSF by an embedded shunt diminishes the weight

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Blood-Brain Barrier Most materials entering CSF from the blood can't spill through the tight intersections between the encompassing ependymal cells porous to lipid-dissolvable materials (liquor, O2, CO2, nicotine and analgesics) These constitute the Blood-Brain boundary , which allows certain substances to enter the liquid however bars others accordingly shielding the cerebrum and spinal line from mischief

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Brain Stem Medulla Pons Midbrain Etc.

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Medulla Oblongata Cranial nerves (IX-XII) Heart rate, respiratory rate Adjusts vein measurement Reflex habitats for hacking, sniffling, choking, gulping, heaving, and hiccupping.

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Pons Anterior lump in the brainstem Pathways between cerebellum Relays nerve driving forces identified with intentional skeletal developments from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum Cranial nerves V-VIII

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Midbrain CN III and IV eye development Substantia nigra sends inhibitory signs to thalamus (degeneration prompts to tremors of Parkinson infection)

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Cerebellum Connected to brainstem Arbor vitae (tree of life) obvious in sagittal area Sits on the fourth ventricle

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Cerebellum The cerebellum capacities in the coordination of skeletal muscle constrictions and in the support of typical muscle tone, stance, and adjust. It looks at engine yield of the essential engine region to tactile information from body (proprioceptors, vision, cochlea, and so forth.)

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Reticular Activating System (RAS) Throughout pons, midbrain & medulla Regulate adjust & act Regulates rest & cognizant consideration harm prompts to irreversible trance like state

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Diencephalon Thalamus Pineal Gland Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Epithalamus (houses pineal organ). The pineal secretes melatonin to impact diurnal cycles.

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Thalamus is found better than the midbrain and fills in as transfer station for all tangible driving forces, with the exception of smell , to the cerebral cortex 1) average geniculate (hearing), 2) sidelong geniculate (vision)

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Hypothalamus is discovered substandard compared to the thalamus Is a hand-off station for smell . Significant controllers of homeostasis It controls and incorporates the autonomic sensory system, which manages withdrawal of smooth muscle, heart muscle, and discharges of numerous organs. Seat of anger & animosity, body temperature. hunger and the satiety, thirst, Maintains the waking state and rest designs

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Functions of Cerebrum Lobes Frontal contains deliberate engine for arranging, disposition, smell and social judgment Motor is in FRONT of an auto Parietal coordinates it com-sets Occipital is o ptical Temporal contains ranges for hearing, passionate conduct, learning, memory, smell

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Basal Nuclei (Basal Ganglia) Masses of dim matter profound to cerebral cortex Involved in engine control & restraint of tremors Great names for new conceived

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Limbic System Loop of cortical structures encompassing profound mind amygdala, hippocampus, fornix & cingulate gyrus Amydala imperative in feelings and hippocampus in memory – the rest we don't know about

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EEG and Brain Waves Electroencephalogram (EEG) charts mind waves May be utilized to analyze epilepsy and other seizure issue It might likewise give valuable data with respect to rest and alertness. Can determination mind demise (two EEGs 24 hours separated)

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Accidental Lobotomy of Phineas Gage Accidental pulverization of both frontal projections Personality change to a disrespectful, debase individual Neuroscientists think arranging, moral judgment, and passionate control are elements of the frontal flap

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Memory Information administration requires learning, memory & overlooking (killing the trivia) anterograde amnesia - can not store new information retrograde amnesia - can not recollect old information Hippocampus is critical in sorting out tangible & psychological data into a memory injury to it makes failure frame new recollections Cerebellum learns engine aptitudes Amygdala imperative in enthusiastic memory

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Sensory Homunculus Demonstrates that the range of the cortex devoted to the impressions of different body parts is relative to how touchy that piece of the body is.

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Motor Homunculus

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Language Includes perusing, composing, talking & understanding words Wernicke's range grants acknowledgment of talked & composed dialect Broca's region produces engine program for larynx, tongue, cheeks & lips transmits that to essential engine cortex for activity The Gnostic territory (parietal flap) incorporates tangible elucidations with recollections from the greater part of the cerebrum to plan a typical thought and devise a solitary reaction to the approaching data.

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Language Centers

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Aphasia A debilitation of the capacity to utilize or grasp words more often than not because of stroke or mind harm. Sores in Wernicke's & Broca's zones (as a rule on the left) are basic sorts: Lesion to Broca's = Motor (nonfluent) aphasia they comprehend what they need to state yet can't state it Inability to organize the muscles controlling discourse (Your Boca Broka?) Lesion to Wernicke's = familiar aphasia words are effortlessly talked however those utilized are off base (Words are vital) Anatomic aphasia (Inability to perceive life systems) = impermanent suffering of life systems teachers

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PET Scans amid a Language Task

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Cerebral Lateralization Left half of the globe is clear cut side of the equator particular for talked & composed dialect, math & science Right side of the equator is representational side of the equator sees data all the more comprehensively, music and masterful aptitude Highly connected with handedness 91% of individuals right-gave with left side is unmitigated Lateralization creates with age injury more issues in guys since females have more correspondence between side of the equator (corpus callosum is thicker posteriorly)

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CRANIAL NERVES 12 sets of nerves from the cerebrum

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Numbering the Nerves In great life systems we utilize Roman numerals to number the cranial nerves: I is one , II is two , III is three, IV is four, V is five, VI is six, VII is seven, VIII is eight, IX is nine, X is ten, XI is eleven and XII is twelve The present day method for numbering the cranial nerves is by utilizing CN taken after by an Arabic number. For instance: VIII is composed CN 8.

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I - Olfactory Nerve Provides feeling of notice Damage causes hindered feeling of notice Test with espresso beans, flavor not fragrance, Why? Test for smell NOT acknowledgment of smell. (Ch. 16)

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II - Optic Nerve Provides vision Damage causes visual deficiency in visual field

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III - Oculomotor Nerve Provides eye development , opening of eyelid Damage causes ptosis (hanging eyelid), twofold vision

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IV - Trochlear Nerve Moves eye dejected Damage causes twofold vision & failure to look despondent

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VI - Abducens Nerve Moves eye along the side (ABduction) Damage brings about powerlessness to move eye ______

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Innervation of Eye Muscles

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V - Trigeminal Nerve Main tactile nerve to face (touch, agony and temperature) and muscles of rumination Damage produces loss of sensation & debilitated biting or can bring about expanded torment = trigeminal neuralgia

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VII - Facial Nerve Provides outward appearances, feeling of taste on front 2/3's of tongue, salivary organs and tear, nasal & palatine organs Damage produces listing facial muscles & irritated feeling of taste (missing sweet & salty) called Bell's Palsy

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VIII - Vestibulocochlear Nerve Provides hearing & feeling of adjust Damage produces deafness, dazedness, queasiness, loss of adjust & nystagmus

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IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve Provides control over gulping, salivation, choking, sensations from back 1/3 of tongue, control of BP and breath Damage brings about loss of bi