Words in the Brain The Mental Lexicon Sydney Lamb Rice University lambrice

0
0
1907 days ago, 756 views
PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Data around a word. In standard lexicons a section for every word all the data relating to that word is given therePhonological, realistic, linguistic, semanticall together in one spot In the cerebrum The circumstance is altogether distinctive Each word is spoken to as an extensive networkDifferent sorts of data in diverse locationsSo additionally every expression that is educated as a unit.

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1

Words in the Brain The Mental Lexicon Sydney Lamb Rice University lamb@rice.edu 8 November 2010 National Taiwan University

Slide 2

Information about a word In customary lexicons a section for each word all the data relating to that word is given there Phonological, realistic, syntactic, semantic all together in one place In the mind The circumstance is altogether unique Each word i s spoken to as a vast system Different sorts of data in various areas So additionally each expression that is found out as a unit

Slide 3

Why is this intriguing? Learning of how words are spoken to in the cerebrum gives the way to comprehension phonetic structure reveals insight into how the mind functions when all is said in done Surprisingly, neuroscientists can't disclose to us how the mind forms data To ask them resembles asking an electronic specialist how a PC ascertains the circle of a satellite or how a PC deciphers a climate report from Mandarin to English For the last question it is ideal to ask an etymologist Similarly, on the off chance that you need to know how the human procedures dialect, better to ask a neurocognitive language specialist

Slide 4

Two perspectives of the lexical passage 1 – The conservative section (as in standard lexicons) All the data is there in one place – the lexical section Accessing the data Retrieval First, find the data (requires seeking) Then "read" it 2 – The circulated section The data is conveyed among various areas Accessing the data Activation Follow the associations (no hunt required)

Slide 5

The minimal lexical section (in an outside dictionary) Heading Needed to find the section A realistic portrayal Exposition – the data – other than realistic Phonological Grammatical (e.g., Noun, Verb transitive) Semantic – implications (additionally, etymological data)

Slide 6

The disseminated "passage" (a practical web ) "Section" is not the best term, since it is too nearly connected with the well known smaller passage Better: "Utilitarian Web" (term from Pulvermüller 2002) Kinds of data – in various parts of the web Conceptual Perceptual Grammatical Phonological Production Recognition All of these are interconnected

Slide 7

Topics in this introduction Introductory neuroanatomy Functional networks Phonology in the cerebrum Hierarchy and Cardinal Nodes Nouns and verbs

Slide 8

Topics Introductory neuroanatomy Functional networks Phonology in the cerebrum Hierarchy and Cardinal Nodes Nouns and verbs

Slide 9

The cerebrum Medulla oblongata – Myelencephalon Pons and Cerebellum – Metencephalon Midbrain – Mesencephalon Thalamus and hypothalamus – Diencephalon Cerebral sides of the equator – Telencephalon Cerebral cortex Basal ganglia Basal forebrain cores Amygdaloid core

Slide 10

Two halves of the globe Right Left Interhemispheric gap (a.k.a. longitudinal gap)

Slide 11

Corpus Callosum Connects Hemispheres Corpus Callosum

Slide 12

Major Left Hemisphere points of interest Central Sulcus Sylvian crevice

Slide 13

Major historic points and the four flaps Central Sulcus Parietal Lobe Frontal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Sylvian gap

Slide 14

Primary Areas Primary Somato-tangible Area Central Sulcus Primary Motor Area Primary Auditory Area Primary Visual Area Sylvian gap

Slide 15

Divisions of Primary Motor and Somatic Areas Primary Somato-tactile Area Leg Primary Motor Area Trunk Arm Hand Fingers Mouth Primary Auditory Area Primary Visual Area

Slide 16

Higher level engine zones Primary Somato-tactile Area Actions per-Formed by Leg Actions performed by hand Trunk Arm Hand Actions performed by mouth Fingers Mouth Primary Auditory Area Primary Visual Area

Slide 17

Hierarchy in cortical advancement

Slide 18

Coronal Section Gray matter White matter

Slide 19

The dark matter Color: dim About 3 mm thick Consists of segments of cell bodies 3 mm long "Cortical segments" Each segment reaches out start to finish of the dim matter Therefore, the dim matter, topologically, is a two-dimensional exhibit of cortical segments

Slide 20

Layers of the Cortex start to finish, around 3 mm

Slide 21

The White Matter Provides long-separate associations

Slide 22

Some long-remove fiber groups (schematic)

Slide 23

Topological pith of cortical structure (known realities from neuroanatomy) The thickness of the cortex is totally represented by the segments Hence, the cortex is a variety of hubs A two-dimensional structure of interconnected hubs (segments) Third measurement for Internal structure of the hubs (segments) Cortico-cortical associations (white matter)

Slide 24

Dimensionality of the cortex Two measurements: The variety of hubs The third measurement: The length (profundity) of every segment (through the six cortical layers) The cortico-cortical associations (white matter)

Slide 25

Some things that are currently settled The mind is a system Composed, eventually, of Neurons are interconnected Axons (with branches) Dendrites (with branches) Activity goes along neural pathways Cortical neurons are bunched in segments Columns come in various sizes The littlest: minicolumn – 70-110 neurons Each minicolumn goes about as a unit When it gets to be distinctly dynamic every one of its neurons are dynamic Locations of different sorts of "data" Visual, sound-related, material, engine, …

Slide 26

Deductions from known truths All the data in the cerebrum has the type of a system (the "human data framework") Therefore a man's phonetic and calculated framework is a system (some portion of the data framework) Every lexeme and each idea is a sub-organize Term: utilitarian web (Pulvermüller 2002)

Slide 27

Topics Introductory neuroanatomy Functional networks Phonology in the mind Hierarchy and Cardinal Nodes Nouns and verbs

Slide 28

Hypothesis I: Functional Webs A word is spoken to in the cortex as a practical web Spread over a wide zone of cortex Includes perceptual data As well as particularly theoretical data For ostensible ideas, for the most part in Angular gyrus (?) For a few, center transient gyrus (?) For a few, supramarginal gyrus Plus phonological data

Slide 29

Example: The idea DOG We comprehend what a puppy looks like Visual data, in occipital projection We realize what its bark sounds like Auditory data, in worldly flap We recognize what its hide feels like Somatosensory data, in parietal flap All of the above.. constitute perceptual data are subwebs with numerous hubs each must be interconnected into a bigger web alongside further web structure for theoretical data

Slide 30

Building a model of an utilitarian web: First steps Each hub in this chart speaks to the cardinal node* of a subweb of properties For instance C T M V *to be characterized in a minute!

Slide 31

Add phonological acknowledgment For instance, FORK Labels for Properties: C – Conceptual M – Motor P – Phonological picture T – Tactile V – Visual C T M P V These are all cardinal hubs – each is bolstered by a subweb The phonological picture of the talked shape [fork] (in Wernicke's region)

Slide 32

Add hub in essential sound-related zone For instance, FORK Labels for Properties: C – Conceptual M – Motor P – Phonological picture PA – Primary Auditory T – Tactile V – Visual C T M P PA V Primary Auditory : the cortical structures in the essential sound-related cortex that are initiated when the ears get the vibrations of the talked frame [fork]

Slide 33

Add hub for phonological generation For instance, FORK Labels for Properties: C – Conceptual M – Motor P – Phonological picture PA – Primary Auditory PP – Phonological Production T – Tactile V – Visual C T M P PP V PA Arcuate fasciculus

Slide 34

Part of the practical web for DOG (indicating cardinal hubs just) Each hub appeared here is the cardinal hub of a subweb T M C For instance, the cardinal hub of the visual subweb PP P V PA

Slide 35

An enacted useful web (with two subwebs incompletely appeared) T C PP PR PA V M C – Cardinal idea hub M – Memories PA – Primary sound-related PP – Phonological creation PR – Phonological acknowledgment T – Tactile V – Visual elements

Slide 36

Ignition of an utilitarian web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 37

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 38

Ignition of a useful web from visual info T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 39

Ignition of a useful web from visual info T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 40

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 41

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 42

Ignition of a useful web from visual info T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 43

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 44

Ignition of a useful web from visual info T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 45

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 46

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 47

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 48

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 49

Ignition of a useful web from visual information T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 50

Speaking as a reaction to start of a web T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 51

Speaking as a reaction to start of a web T C PR Art PA V M

Slide 52

Speaking as a reaction to start of a web T C PR Art PA V M From here (by means of subcortical structures) to the muscles that control the organs of enunciation

Slide 53

A MEG contemplate from Max Planck Institute Levelt, Praamstra, Meyer, Helenius & Salmelin, J.Cog.Neuroscience 1998

Slide 54

Hypothesis II: Nodes as Cortical Columns Nodes

SPONSORS