Word related Exposure to Metalworking Fluids

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Word related Exposure to Metalworking Fluids Presented at the Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario Spring Symposium March 28, 2007 By Lorraine Shaw, B.Sc., CIH, ROH Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, McMaster University

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Outline Overview Types of MWF, Health Effects, Standards, Exposure Assessment Objectives of the Study Methodology Selection of Plants, Laboratory Investigation, Field Investigation, QC and Statistics Results Laboratory and Field Results Conclusions

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Types of MWFs: Oil-based: Insoluble (perfect) Soluble (30% - 85% oil) Water-based: Semi-engineered (5%-30% oil) Synthetic (no oil) Health Effects: Cancer Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) Respiratory Effects Dermatitis Overview (I)

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Regulations and Exposure Standards: Ontario Ministry of Labor: Oil, mineral, fog 5 mg/m 3 TWAEV, 10 mg/m 3 STEV ACGIH TLV-TWA (Mineral Oil) in 2006 notice of planned changes : Mineral Oil Used in metal working Poorly and somewhat refined 0.2 mg/m 3 (Inhalable) A2 Highly and seriously refined 0.2 mg/m 3 (Inhalable) A4 Proposed NIOSH REL for a wide range of MWF (1998): 0.5 mg/m 3 (Total) 0.4mg/m 3 (Thoracic) Exposure Assessment: Sampling Devices: ie. Add up to, Thoracic (BGI), IOM, Direct Reading Instrument (DustTrak) Particle estimate specific inspecting Overview (II)

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The Three Size Fractions

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Objectives Assess and Validate Analytical Methods Assess Air Sampling Methods Collect Current Representative Occupational Exposure Data Assess Exposure Exceedance Compare Ontario Exposure with Published Data (Mainly Water-Based MWF's)

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Methodology Selection of 4 Plants in Ontario Laboratory Investigation Field Investigation Quality Control and Statistical Analysis

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Laboratory Investigation NIOSH Method (0500) – Total Aerosol NIOSH 5524 – Extractable MWFs HSE Method (MDHS 95) – Marker Element Sample Recovery Detection Limits Sample Stability During Storage

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Field Investigation Collection of Air Samples Personal Area Size Selective Samples Total Thoracic (MMAD = 10 µm) Respirable (MMAD = 4 µm) Inhalable (MMAD = 100 µm) Direct Reading Instrument (DustTrak)

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Air Sampling Devices Total Sampler IOM Inhalable Sampler DustTrak Aerosol Monitor Direct Reading Instrument BGI 2.69 Cyclone Thoracic Sampler Respicon Size-Selective Particle Sampler

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Occupational Exposure

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Examples of Machining Fluids

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Examples of Finished Products

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QC and Stats QUALITY CONTROL Laboratory Field STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Excel and Minitab 13

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Results: Laboratory Investigation Sample Recovery Our Study 83.5% NIOSH Study 95 % Detection Limit Our Study 35 µg NIOSH Study 28 µg Storage Study (Sample Stability) Room Temp – NOT Stable Refrigerator – 2 days Freezer – 7 days

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Results:Airborne Concentrations (mg/m 3 ) % Exceedance depends on log ordinary conveyance ze = - log(GM/STD)/log(GSD)

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Relationship of Total versus Thoracic

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Conclusions (I) HSE technique demonstrated tricky Both NIOSH strategy 0500 or 5524 can be utilized favored technique is the 5524 Detection limits, test recuperation and so on were like NIOSH study Samples ought NOT be put away at Room Temp Samples ought to be broke down inside 2 or 7 days relying upon capacity temperature

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Conclusions (II) Ratio of Thoracic to Total vaporized is around 0.7 Range of exposures in Ontario (0.04 to 3.84 mg/m 3 ) is like others (NIOSH & OSHA) Percent exceedance in light of information set and suspicion of log ordinariness is 38% as for NIOSH REL Respiratory impacts reported at levels beneath 0.5 mg/m 3 Total Protection requires AIR, DERMAL and FLUID administration

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Thank you This examination study was subsidized by a give from the WSIB