What s inside the Earth Is there truly a different universe at the middle What is the vitality for evolving surf

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OC/GEO103 Address 5 Earth Structure. What's inside the Earth? Is there truly a different universe at the middle? What is the vitality for changing surface highlights?. The Earth Framework. Air. Hydrosphere. Environment. Hydrosphere. Environment. Cryosphere. Biosphere.

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OC/GEO103 Lecture 5 Earth Structure

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What's inside the Earth? Is there truly a different universe at the inside? What is the vitality for changing surface highlights?

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The Earth System

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Atmosphere

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Hydrosphere Atmosphere

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Hydrosphere Atmosphere Cryosphere

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Biosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Cryosphere

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Lithosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Cryosphere

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Our Dynamic Earth's surface is continually changing How would we know it's dynamic?? Seismic tremors (and tidal waves) Volcanic emissions Magnetic Field Surface Features: Mountain Ranges; Mid-Ocean Ridges; Deep-Sea Trenches

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Topography of the Ocean Floor

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Topography of the Ocean Floor Mid-Ocean Ridge

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Topography of the Ocean Floor Deep-ocean Trench Mid-Ocean Ridge

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Topography of the Ocean Floor Deep-ocean Trench Mid-Ocean Ridge Island Chain

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Continents versus Oceans

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Elevated Continents

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Elevated Continents Submerged Ocean Basins

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How Big is the Earth? Periphery  40,000 km (25,000 miles) Radius  6,300 km (4,000 miles) (1 meter = 1/10,000,000 separation from equator to post)

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Major Questions: How are the sea bowls framed? How lasting are these components? What is the age of the sea depths? What's the age of the mainlands? Why are the sea bowls profound and the mainlands high?

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The Surface of the Earth 2 levels: raised landmasses submerged sea bowls What causes these surface components? We should know what goes ahead inside the Earth

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What's going ahead inside the Earth?

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Early Ideas Jules Verne

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"Voyage to the Center of the Earth" Entered in Iceland Exited in Italy

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Edgar Rice Burroughs "Tarzan" "John Carter of Mars"

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Pellucidar

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Pellucidar Fantasy!

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Earth's Interior is: Too hot! - softened shake (magma) originates from even shallow profundities Heat originates from radioactivity (essentially K, U and Th in the mantle) Crushingly high weight! - no open spaces!

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Information about the Earth's Interior originates from: Volcanoes Seismic Waves ("sound pictures") Meteorites

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Volcanoes Hawaiian "hotspot" and so forth Windows into the Earth Samples 200km down (e.g., precious stones!)

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Seismic Waves Sound vitality from quakes and vast blasts is recorded at seismometers appropriated far and wide

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Meteor Crater (Arizona)

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Willamette Meteorite Found 1902, in West Linn Largest in the U.S.A. Sold and now dwells at the American Museum of Natural History, in NYC

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Dimensions and Boundaries Top of Mantle 10 to 70 km (5 to 30 miles) Top of Core 2,900 km (2000 miles) Center of Earth 6,300 km (4,000 miles) Mt. Everest  9 km high. Mariana Trench  11 km profound.

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Where does this photo originate from? Coordinate Observations : Exposures on Surface Up from  50 km (30 miles) profundity Drilling To  15 km (10 miles) Volcanic Material Up from  200 km (120 miles) profundity

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Indirect Observations : Magnetic Field => Iron center Gravity Field Densities: Crust: 2 - 3 gm/cm 3 Mantle: 3.3 - 5.8 gm/cm 3 Core: 10.8 gm/cm 3 Earthquake Seismic Waves => Physical condition of covering, mantle, center.

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Interior of Earth by STRENGTH LITHOSPHERE inflexible external shell outside and upper mantle (~ 50 to 200 km thick) to some degree weak, delicate frosty (like spread out of refrigerator) ASTHENOSPHERE hotter, plastic layer under lithosphere mantle from ~ 150 to 700 km squishy, plastic warm (like relaxed margarine ) LOWER MANTLE Solid, yet can stream after some time! ~700 to 2900 km OUTER CORE fluid INNER CORE strong

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Elevated Continents Submerged Ocean Basins

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Swimming Pool

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Earth's Mantle

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Continental Crust Earth's Mantle

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Types of Crust Continental Crust

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Types of Crust Continental Crust 20 to 70 km (10 to 30 miles) thick. Made out of exceedingly advanced rocks, similar to stone, and transformative shakes, pressed and warmed under mountain ranges

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Continental Crust Earth's Mantle

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Oceanic Crust

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Types of Crust Continental Crust 20 to 7 0 km (10 to 30 miles) thick. Maritime Crust

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Types of Crust Continental Crust 20 to 7 0 km (10 to 30 miles) thick. Maritime Crust 7 km (4 miles) thick. Made out of basalt (volcanic).

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Elevated Continents Submerged Ocean Basins

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Thick, Buoyant Continental Crust

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Thin, Less-Buoyant Oceanic Crust

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Thick Continental Crust Floats Higher

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Thick Continental Crust Floats Higher Thin Oceanic Crust Floats Lower

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Mid-Atlantic Ridge

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Water Fills in the Low Areas

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And Hides Features on the Ocean Floor! Water Fills in the Low Areas

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PLATE BOUNDARIES

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PLATE Tectonics : From the Greek " tecton " manufacturer "archi tect " The investigation of vast elements on Earth's surface and the procedures that shaped them.

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PLATE TECTONICS : Large components : mainlands, mountain ranges sea bowls and procedures : seismic tremors volcanic emissions because of development of plates of Earth's external shell. All subsequent from mantle convection

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