What might we do with the End-of-Life vessel

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What might we do with the End-of-Life vessel ? John Summerscales Advanced Composites Manufacturing Center University of Plymouth ... with contribution from Miggy Singh (UoP SMSE), Ken Wittamore (Triskel Consultants Limited), and Sue Halliwell (NetComposites)

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Political drivers The European Community plans to be the most "feasible" alliance of nations on the planet: Waste Framework Directive (WFD) Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) likewise weight from the natural entryway End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) for autos Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) order ?? End-of-Life Vessel ??

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Commercial drivers Waste minimisation is a fundamental administration rationality to accomplish a more beneficial business cost reserve funds thro' enhanced asset productivity consistence lessens suit costs hazard decrease enhances financial specialist certainty eco-accommodating is useful for client relations

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End-of-life (EoL) vessel Annette Roux (2007) President of FIN (French boatbuilding alliance) and President of Groupe Beneteau, said: industry has buckled down on procedures to pulverize old fiberglass structures, rather than proprietors surrendering them, "yet so far we are experiencing issues finding any: they are in great condition and mariners keep on using them"

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USS Guardian FRP sheathed oak-and-fir wooden frame ashore on coral reef Sulu Sea (Phillipines) 17-Jan-2013

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EuCIA: European Composites Industry Association Competitive Composites: Sustainability and Recycling Challenges, Brussels, 04 May 2011 open deliberation report: http://www.eucia.org/documents/EuCIA%20Debate%20Report%2004052011.pdf

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Size of issue 95% of water crafts <24m long are thermoset FRP won't consider thermoplastic composites here generation of 115 000 tons for each year in Europe marine composites = ~7% of aggregate composites advertise regularly bodies >> autos, so require cutting before pounding some basic issues with structural building diminish estimate for savvy transport to process site innately intense, so high vitality utilization

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Recycling progressive system squander diminishment > reuse > recuperation > transfer fabricate: incline materials use reuse: vessel – parts – materials recoup: filaments – pyrolysis and so on for feedstock transfer: leave – burn – compost if bio-based landfill if all else fails be careful: poisonous mixes in bilges, motors, ointments, and so on and hostile to fouling coatings

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Waste diminishment in make Why get it, then toss it out ? examine what leaves the plant in skips and depletes Why not reuse squander ? little volumes just little master markets e.g. carbon fiber prepreg > adornments no unmistakable monetary advantages Italy: ENA eco-outline & LCA criteria ELB FRP waste to auxiliary crude material

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Waste decrease by re-utilize Second-hand advertise, e.g. HMS Wilton now Essex Yacht Club HQ HMS Bicester to Greek Navy HS Europa Every maritime designer has his own outline could various plans utilize standard bring forth cover then a solid second hand market may create Image from Essex Yacht Club landing page

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Waste diminishment by re-utilize (repair or part substitution) Team Phillips and US SSN 711 "San Francisco" Images from http://www.nmmc.co.uk/index.php?page=News_Centre&newsid=18 (left) and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/greetings/uk/1026891.stm (focus and right) http://navysite.de/ssn/ssn711_6.jpg (left), http://www.subcommittee.com/cgi-container/ikonboard.cgi?s=0584a1450d8de1bca4f7443b07a0f89f;act=ST;f=27;t=115;st=20 (focus) and http://www.subcommittee.com/cgi-canister/ikonboard.cgi?s=49d5aa6747d28724559df35b205650a3;act=ST;f=27;t=115;st=10 (right)

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Waste decrease by material recuperation Four classes: primary: to materials of proportionate execution auxiliary: to materials of sub-par execution tertiary: to chemicals and fuel quaternary: to energy

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Waste lessening by material recuperation Ground GFRP can supplant ~15% SMC or BMC Finland * (state-driven activity with reusing organization) ~1000 little open art reused to date France * (six contending organizations) ~250 dinghies <6m treated so far Italy* (Materials Recovery Platform ATECO ID37) Data * from EuCIA report

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Wasste lessening by material recuperation (solvolysis) EURECOMP FP7 extend (2009-2012) Solvolysis = sub-or super-basic thermochemical depolymerisation in water (or CO 2 ?) clean recouped strands with little buildup yet may require measuring operators supplanted fluid portion contains e.g. gum monomers and benzoic corrosive JEC Composites magazine, 2011, (65), 24-25

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Waste lessening by materials recuperation (CFRP) carbon filaments not debased amid warm recuperation Recycled Carbon Fiber Limited (was Milled Carbon) www.recycledcarbonfibre.com TSB CR&D FibreCycle program (2007-2010) www.fibrecycleproject.org.uk irregular CFRP η o =0.375 V f =20% E f =240 GPa Young's modulus = 18 GPa woven GRFP η o =0.5 V f =50% E f =72 GPa Young's modulus = 18 GPa

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Waste transfer (reusing?) France GPIC vitality recuperation in concrete furnaces costs for granulating and oven utilize > landfill Germany Zajons Logistik and Holcim AG 60kt Turbine sharp edges destroyed then to bond furnaces (~15GJ/ton) fiery remains and slag fused into bond Norway mechanical reusing vitality recuperation in concrete ovens pyrolysis concoction reusing by means of solvolysis (GjenKomp extend)

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Waste transfer (cremation) thermoset gums singe as opposed to blaze ? stories of boatyard blasts with fuel still in GRP tanks GRP in burning should be very much blended with other waste charge for GRP ~£120-150/t versus £30/t for normal squanders Up Helly Aa (not FRP)

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If all else flops, then leave ? >35 m (100 ft) not exasperates by tempests >75 m (250 ft) stay set up & possessed by fish for 30-40 years might be suitable for use in seaside barriers against ocean level ascent recreational jumping ( e.g. RN frigate HMS Scylla in Whitesand Bay) requires: cleaning bilges, hostile to fouling consideration regarding mooring LCA to legitimize post-utilize administration persuade partners regarding positive advantage be careful with scour HMS Scylla Image from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/news_features/pictures/scylla/scylla_bang180.jpg

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Effects of scour scraped spot by rocks or potentially sand prompts to polymer smaller scale particles aggregate poisons from seawater high poison levels on molecule surfaces particles ingested by marine creatures microparticles can enter circulatory arrangement of e.g. mussels

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If everything else fizzles, then landfill UK Waste Classification Scheme risky, non-dangerous or latent composites named non-perilous, under "biodegradable squanders and other non-uncommon waste" Costs of landfill rising every year

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Life Cycle Assessment To measure ecological effects require investigation of Environmental Impact Classification Factors (EICF): BS8905 includes "Arrive Use" likewise consider general aggravation of ... tidy, clamor and smell ?

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Conclusions we have to build up a compelling strategy for diminishing end-of-life parts to sensible size consider vessel end-of-life contemplations before political arrangements are forced attempt life cycle evaluations to bolster any cases made for natural advantage

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if more profundity required ...

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