Well known MUSIC IN FLORENCE, 1475-1540

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THE LATE RENAISSANCE. Entirely talking, the word renaissance implies

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Section 20 POPULAR MUSIC IN FLORENCE, 1475-1540

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THE LATE RENAISSANCE Strictly, the word renaissance signifies "resurrection," however it likewise hints "recuperation" and "rediscovery. Nineteenth-century students of history imagined the term to depict the immense blooming of scholarly and aesthetic movement that happened first in Italy and afterward somewhere else in Europe amid the years 1350-1600. What we in music call the "late Renaissance" possessed the years 1475-1600.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LATE RENAISSANCE MUSIC 1. improvement of the expressive, for sure explanatory, force of music, therefore of a. new enthusiasm for the content appeared by the humanists b. yearning to increase the importance of the content through music by and large 2. developing sense that music may be for religious comfort and salvation as well as for individual enhancement and diversion 3. innovation of music printing, which took into consideration the dispersal of music to a considerably more extensive section of the populace 4. move in the view of music as a train among the sciences to one among the expressive arts 5. developing view of the arranger as a unique kind of person—a craftsman—one deserving of exceptional respects and monetary prizes

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ART MUSIC AND POPULAR MUSIC Historians name the fifteenth century in Italy the quattrocento (Italian for what we call "the 1400s"). A significant part of the educated polyphony (Masses, motets, and chansons)— what we may call "high craftsmanship music"- - written in Italy amid the quattrocento was made by northerners, numerous from the Burgundian lands. Local Italians, notwithstanding, developed melodic structures and styles that approximated what we may call "prevalent music." Much of this music was not composed down in convoluted, learned documentation, but rather ad libbed on spot as indicated by long-standing oral conventions.

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THE CARNIVAL SONG In Florence amid fair season (instantly before Lent) veiled gatherings of men and young men would experience the lanes singing a sort of melody proper for these revels, particularly called a festival tune ( canto carnascialesco ). Regularly the content of the jamboree tune was brimming with sexually unequivocal references. Once such tune is the Canto de' profumieri ( Song of the Perfume Sellers ), the content of which is by Lorenzo de' Medici ( the Magnificent ) who controlled Florence from 1469 until his passing in 1492.

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The start of Lorenzo de' Medici's Canto de' profumieri Typical of the fair melody, the music is homorhythmic and in this way homophonic. The harmonies are all what we would call "root position" sets of three, likely a sign that this piece was initially an extemporized bit of road singing that exclusive later came to be protected in composed documentation.

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THE LAUDA The mainstream festival melody had its holy partner in the lauda. A lauda (Italian for "a melody of acclaim"; pl., laude ) was a straightforward, famous hallowed tune composed, not in chapel Latin, but rather in the nearby lingo of Italian. The lauda was typically sung by individuals from a confraternity , a general public of laymen committed to some part of Christian confidence.

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SAVONAROLA The most popular, or scandalous, essayist of laude was Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498). Savonarola was an over the top Dominican minister who, by 1497, had picked up control of the administration of Florence. Savonarola was a religious perfectionist who demanded that all objects of common joy, including music books, melodic instruments, cards, dice, chessboards aromas, pictures, and so forth, were gathered together and blazed in what came to be known as a campfire of the vanities . Eventually, after he lost control of the administration, Savonarola himself was singed in a campfire in focal Florence.

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The start of Giesù sommo conforto with content by Girolamo Savonarola Like the festival melody Sian galanti di Valenza , this lauda is involved only of what we would call root position ternions, maybe a recommendation that the music for it was initially ad libbed.

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Savonarola established the "blaze of the vanities" to free the city of objects of individual embellishment and pleasure. In the long run, the nationals of Florence free themselves of Savonarola by subjecting him to a similar destiny. This mysterious painting demonstrates the smoldering of Savonarola and two of his supporters in 1498.

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THE FROTTOLA The term frottola (pl., frottole ) was a catch-all word used to depict a polyphonic setting of a wide assortment of strophic Italian verse. The frottola started life as verse sung to an extemporized string backup regularly played on a lira da braccio . It thrived in Italy between the years 1470 and 1530. Like the jamboree melody and the lauda, the frottola for the most part comprises of a few stanzas of verse in Italian.

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An Italian lyra da braccio of 1563 now safeguarded in Vermillion, South Dakota It has five strings and two automaton strings off the fingerboard. Instruments, for example, this were utilized to go with artists of the frottola.

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JOSQUIN'S EL GRILLO Perhaps the best known about all frottole today is El grillo ( The Cricket ; c1500) by Josquin des Prez. It is principally homophonic and involved root position sets of three. With regards to the significance of the content, maybe it insinuates sexual movement in the warmth of summer, maybe to the artist Carlo Grillo, or maybe it is basically a fun melody about a cricket.

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The start of Josquin des Prez's frottola El grillo comprises totally of root position harmonies

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The content of Josquin's El Grillo

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THE EARLY MADRIGAL IN FLORENCE In the sixteenth century the madrigal , like the frottola, was a catch-all term used to portray settings of Italin verse. The sixteenth-century madrigal is perpetually through created (new music for each line of content), as opposed to strophic—each line and expression of content must get its own exceptional melodic setting, something unrealistic with strophic shape. The madrigal was by and large been the beneficiary of a more grand style of verse than the frottola; without a doubt the madrigalists took their writings from the finest artists in the Italian dialect, their most loved being Francesco Petrarch.

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TEXT EXPRESSION IN THE MADRIGAL The central point of the madrigal was to express the ballad as strikingly and seriously as would be prudent. Madrigal authors occupied with content painting in music; the music obviously sounds out that significance of the content, nearly word by word. Content painting (additionally called word painting ) turned into extremely popular with madrigal writers in Italy and later in England. Indeed, even today such melodic banalities as murmurs and disharmonies for "unforgiving" words are called madrigalisms .

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JACQUES ARCADELT'S IL BIANCO E DOLCE CIGNO Jacques Archadelt (c1505-1568) created the main critical gathering of madrigals when he distributed his Primo libro di madrigali d' Archadelt ( First Book of Madrigals by Arcadelt ) in 1538 or 1539, which was republished more than fifty circumstances before the century's over. Opening Arcadelt's Primo libro di madrigali is his Il bianco e dolce cigno ( The delicate white swan ). It has snapshots of content painting in music, among them the sudden harmony move on "sobbing" ("piangendo") and the apparently perpetual impersonation on "a thousand passings a day" ("di mille morti il dì").

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ORAZIO VECCHI'S IL BIANCO E DOLCE CIGNO Orazio Vecchi (1550-1605) paid respect to, or maybe mocked, Arcadelt's well known madrigal with his own setting of Il bianco e dolce cigno (1589). Here there are such a variety of occasions of word painting that the madrigal practically turns into a case of "toon music," utilizing an outrageous expressive gadget to pass on the significance of almost every wonderful picture.

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The start of Orazio Vecchi's madrigal Il bianco e dolce cigno , which shows an unmistakable occurrence of content painting: on "cantando" the upper two voices break into colorful singing.