Utilization of Drum Circles for Stress Relief and Social Integration

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Utilization of Drum Circles for Anxiety Alleviation and Social Reconciliation. Mary Sokolowski BSN, RN Kent State College September 24, 2008. DRUM?. drum is an individual from the percussion bunch, actually named a membranophone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/drum) Percussion/Beat Instruments

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Utilization of Drum Circles for Stress Relief and Social Integration Mary Sokolowski BSN, RN Kent State University September 24, 2008

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DRUM? drum is an individual from the percussion assemble, actually delegated a membranophone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/drum) Percussion/Rhythm Instruments – Djembe/conga/mixed drink/catch/tom-tom Clavas Maraccas Tambourine Castinets Shaker eggs Electric Drum cushions

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CIRCLE straightforward states of Euclidean geometry comprising of those focuses … which are at a steady separation , … from a settled point, called the middle ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle ) so . . .

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Drum Circle drum circle = any gathering of individuals playing (more often than not) hand-drums and percussion around . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_circle Group of individuals from many foundations: Races, ages, societies, ethnicity, training levels With or without melodic capacity + Facilitator: Leads bunch Music Therapist – utilizes music and self

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Drum Circles

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History: Drum Circles First musicality – pulse Drum circles – different societies/overall Ancient circumstances – ceremonies Healing - decrease torment, enduring Communication (Sacks, 2006) Now: Websites for Sex: 185 million destinations Websites for Music: 131 million locales (Kemper & Danhauer, 2005)

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Principles Sound – objects vibrate Human Body – Vibrates/Absorbs Entrainment: Strong cadence (vibration) causes different rhythms to fall in a state of harmony Noise versus Music Psychophysiologic reaction – pitch, cadence Limbic framework/Neurohormonal framework Altered conditions of consiousness (Dossey & Keegan, 2009) Collaborative imagination Camaraderie, non-debilitating condition

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Benefits Psychologic: Distraction Self Awareness Decreased Anxiety Improved Mood Comfort/Relaxation Emotional Release Social: Cohesiveness Reconnection Interpersonal bolster Spiritual: Altered Consciousness Higher Power (Secular) (Winkelman, 2003)

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Benefits: Physiologic: ∆ Neuronal action – lateral transient/cortical territories ∆ RR, HR inconstancy ↓ Salivary cortisol ↑ Opiate receptor expression ↑ Interleukin 6, salivary IgA (Kemper & Danhauer, 2005)

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Effects: Music Tempo, Pitch, Rhythm People Listener Characteristics Circumstances Live versus Recorded Active versus Passive Recreation/Work/Therapy (Kemper & Danhauer, 2005)

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Types Recreational Corporate Diversity Health/Wellness Music Store Therapeutic

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Stress Response Jung Psyche's endeavor to self-manage Problem somaticized (McClary & Rebecca, 2007) Selye General Adaptation Response (GAR) Reactive Response Psychoneuroimmunlogy (McCance & Huether, 2006)

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Stress Response

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Effects of Stress Sleep Appetite Growth Behavior Digestion Wound recuperating Every organ framework – Neuroendocrine, CV, Immune framework (Kemper & Danhauer, 2005)

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Concept: Social Integration Definition: Perceived/Received feeling of bolster from others Includes: Social bolster capacities Network structure (Hutchison, 1999)

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Antecedents Social Network People Social Embeddedness Connectedness Social Climate Helpfulness, Protection (Hutchison, 1999)

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Consequences: Feeling of being: Loved Esteemed Respected Sense of having a place with gathering (Hutchison, 1999)

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Nursing Diagnosis Social Isolation: Definition: Aloneness experienced by the individual and saw as forced by others and as a contrary or undermined state Characteristics: Expressed sentiments of aloneness, dismissal, feeling not the same as others; lacking feeling of reason; failure to meet desires of others (Wilkinson & Wilkinson, 2005)

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Related Factors R/T: Populations Chemical Dependency Addictive Behavior Psychologic Impairment Alzheimer's Disease Treatment-forced Isolation Trauma Stressful Occupations Corporate culture, LTC specialist, Students (Wilkinson & Wilkinson, 2005)

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Research Normal Subjects: 111 subjects: 6 bunches 2 control – tuning in, perusing 4 gathering drum – basic, affect, shamanic, composite Measure: Blood tests + Anxiety/Depression Scales Results: ↑ DHEA:Cortisol level, ↑NK cell action, ↑lymphocytes; No ∆ Depression/Anxiety Scales Conclusion: Neuroendocrine and neuroimmune hormones ↑ contrary to typical anxiety reaction (Bittman, Berk, Felten, Westengard, Simonton, & Pappas, 2001)

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Research Alzheimer's Disease – ↓ Motivation, ↓ activity for social association; decrease in psychomotor, intellectual, informative, social, passionate Purpose: Test estimation of melodic instrument to evoke reactions in a gathering melodic session Method: 2 bunches; 24 sessions (1/week) 1 early/direct, 1 later Alzheimer's Participant perception Results: Musical observation still present; ready to learn new material; upgrades social cooperation; AD reacts to structure of development, beat; Best – djembe in lap (Cevasco & Grant, 2006)

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Research Stress Induction/Amelioration: 32 sound volunteers Method: Blood tests pre/post convention All – perplex for stress enlistment; 1 assemble – proceeded with, 1 aggregate rested, 1 amass occupied with RMM convention Results: Subjects with RMM convention - 19/45 fringe blood quality investigation markers showed inversion contrasted and 6/45 in charge and 0/45 in continuous stressor bunches Antiviral, immunologic impacts (Bittman, Berk, Shannon, Sharaf, Westengard, & Guegler, 2005)

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Research Stroke Patients 40 patients - engine hindrance after stroke – paresis of UE Method: Restricted whole arm and presented to redundant developments with piano, electric drum Result: change in developments – fine engine (piano) and gross engine (drum); practical rearrangement noted on PET sweep ? Impact from motivational components after stroke (assemble) (Schneider, Schonle, Altenmuller, & Munte, 2007)

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Research Drug Addiction Addicts are narcissistic, disengaged, detached in subculture 4 isolate studies in 2001 Method: Observation, Interview (instructor), Pilot program, Online dialog Results: Unity, reason, connectedness, profound unwinding, passionate release, modified condition of awareness, "surge of energy", "eraser" to evacuate impacts of injury. Entrains mind to feel pleaurable impacts without medications. Reintegration of self (Winkelman, 2003)

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Research LTC Workers Turnover rates for LTC specialists: 40-100%/yr with burnout, discouraged mind-set 125 subjects – a few gatherings more than 1 yr period; Method: 6 session/RMM exhibited as representative improvement movement Group Empowerment Drumming Protocol Tool: Maslach Burnout Inventory & Profile of Mood States Results: Significant ↓ burnout and ↑ disposition Cost investment funds: $ 8100/ea X 60 laborers = $89,100 Cost of program: $10,300 (more than 5 yrs) (Bittman, Bruhn, Stevens, Westengard, & Umbach, 2003)

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Other uses: Community Drumming Sense of association with self Sense of family association Sense of group association (Camilleri, 2002; Stone, 2005) Corporate Drumming Team building – support and expression Employee Satisfaction Collaboration/Creativity Interdisciplinary Respect (http://www.findbliss.com/Magazine/Detailed/60.shtml)

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Adverse Effects None revealed in writing One article specified ? precipitation of seizures with music of ↑ beat (Stouffer, Shirk, & Polomano, 2007) Caution in culture of substance manhandle

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Intervention Music Therapy: utilizing music to help accomplish a particular change in conduct, feeling, or physiology Define the particular change in conduct or physiology that is wanted Inform the person of reason for music encounter Facilitate the individual's dynamic investment (Dochterman, Bulechek, Butcher, & University of Iowa, 2008)

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Drum Circle Silence – takes into account focusing Unstructured thunder – utilize diverse parts of hands for various sounds Express sentiments Chance for authority – control Assert sentiments Amplify feelings (Camilleri, 2002)

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Drum Circle Introduce self with drum – Group reflects the sound Self expression Voice to feeling Immediate delight and criticism (Camilleri, 2002)

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Drum Circle Listening/Imitating Games Mirror Games - 1 begins, gather duplicates back – pride of proprietorship Echo Games – 1 begins, sound around gathering in wave – chance for thought to be listened; no right/wrong (Camilleri, 2002)

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Drum Circle Leader Role Introductions – bunch process ABC's of drumming – drums, methods Ice Breaker – becoming more acquainted with others Entrainment Building – tuning in, absorbing Insight – make associations Conclusion – abridge lessons learned (Bittman, Bruhn, Lim, Neve, Stevens, & Knudsen, 2004)

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Recipe – Drum Circle Define Purpose Select gathering/time/put Individuals select instruments Start – quiet Ice breaker ABC's of drumming Unstructured thunder

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Recipe – Drum Circle Individual presentation with drum Mirror amusement Echo amusement Rhythm associations – drove by pioneer Cool down – slower cadence Insight Conclusion

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Evaluation Outcomes Leisure Participation: utilization of unwinding, intriguing, and pleasant exercises to advance prosperity Evaluation: Participates in relaxation exercises Uses suitable social connection abilities Exhibits inventiveness through recreation action Expresses fulfillment with relaxation activities (Moorhead, 2008)

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Summary Drum Circles utilize the procedure of entrainment – rhythms falling in a state of harmony – to decrease stress and social seclusion The demonstration of making music in a gathering cultivates group assembling and makes connec

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