URBAN WASTE MANAGEMNT AND UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY IN COTONOU TOWN IN REPUBLIC OF BENIN

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The tidal pond framework toward the North. The littoral outskirt in the South. ... 6-Sites close to the tidal pond (inside of 1 km) 7-Sites with effect from the sea (inside of 1 km) ...

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URBAN WASTE MANAGEMNT AND UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY IN COTONOU TOWN IN REPUBLIC OF BENIN Dr. Henri Soclo Universite Nationale du Benin

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BENIN

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Cotonou, Benin

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Background Cotonou = financial capital of Benin Geography From coastline to the Cotonou tidal pond 6°15' - 6°20' N/2°21'36'' - 2°37' E Elevations of 0.3 - 6 meters amsl. Surface Area = 7,000 hectares Population 553,000 in 1992 Currently ~1 million tenants

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Basic Groundwater Hydrology Flooding identified with shallow water table. Groundwater stream is from the focal locale to The tidal pond framework toward the North The littoral outskirt in the South. Groundwater is bacteriologically and synthetically defiled by strong and fluid family squanders Problem exacerbated in peri-urban zones looseness of the bowels, cholera, and typhoid fever

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Basis of Problem: Solid Wastes 1400 mm of precipitation Flooding: March-July/Sept.- Nov stormy seasons ~ 0.45 kg for every individual every day = ~ 400,000 tons a year in 1998 Only 30% is gathered and treated 70% tossed on roads covered utilized for dikes

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Characterization Effort 29 Wells All Hand Dug (<4 meters profundity/0.5-2 m breadth) Divided by districts 1-Good accumulation of residential waste 2-Low level gathering of local waste 3-No accumulation of local waste 4-Marshy ranges 5-Industrial destinations 6-Sites close to the tidal pond (inside 1 km) 7-Sites with effect from the sea (inside 1 km)

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CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS Temperature pH conductivity NO 3 - , NO 2 - SO 4 2-HCO 3 - Sodium Potassium Calcium magnesium overwhelming metals for organics, BOD BACTERIAL TESTS EMB, WILSON, GLD, CHAPMAN and TSN culture media used to measure Eschrichia coli Salmonella Enterobacter Staphylococcus Sulfate reductor Clostridium, MAC Conkey and Azide Esculine Bile were utilized identify coliforms fecal streptococcus. Test Parameters/Bacteria

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Bacteria versus Collection Zone 200 1 = High Level Waste 2 = Medium Level Waste 3 = Low Level Waste 150 " TOTAL GERMS" per ml 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5

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Nitrate versus Collection Zone 250 1 = High Level Waste 2 = Medium Level Waste 3 = Low Level Waste 200 150 Nitrate in mg/l 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5

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Metals Near Marsh Areas 6 4 = Marsh Areas 6 = Lagoons 7 = Oceans 9 = Other 5 4 Cadmium m g/l 3 WHO - 5 m g/l 2 1 0 3 5 7 8 9 10 4 6

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Observations Microbes Dramatic Evidence of Widespread Contamination Nitrates Consistently High Throughout Region Metals Consistently High In Marsh Regions ALL INCREASING WITH TIME Greatest Immediate Concern is Bacterial Contamination in Wells

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Possible Solution for Biological Threat To decrease pandemic dangers in these zones chlorine diffuser pots in nearby wells permits microbiological treatment reasonable treatment technique accessible to most of the populace.

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