Unraveling Age-Period-Cohort Effects: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications

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2. Destinations of the Presentation. Quickly Review the Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification ProblemDescribe Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications Recently Developed for APC Analysis in Three Research Designs: 1) APC Analysis of Age-by-Time Period Tables of Rates 2) APC Analysis of Microdata from Repeated Cross-Section Surveys3) Cohort Analysis of

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Unraveling Age-Period-Cohort Effects: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications Kenneth C. Arrive, Duke University PRI Summer Methodology Workshop Presentation Pennsylvania State University June 16, 2008

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Objectives of the Presentation Briefly Review the Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem Describe Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications Recently Developed for APC Analysis in Three Research Designs: 1) APC Analysis of Age-by-Time Period Tables of Rates 2) APC Analysis of Microdata from Repeated Cross-Section Surveys 3) Cohort Analysis of Accelerated Longitudinal Panel Designs

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem Why associate examination? See the unique from Norman Ryder's exemplary article: Ryder, Norman B. 1965. "The Cohort as A Concept in the Study of Social Change." American Sociological Review 30:843-861.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem And what is the APC distinguishing proof issue? See the unique from the great Mason et al. article: Mason, Karen Oppenheim, William M. Bricklayer, H. H. Winsborough, W. Kenneth Poole. 1973. "Some Methodological Issues in Cohort Analysis of Archival Data." American Sociological Review 38:242-258.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem These two articles were especially critical in confining the writing on accomplice examination in humanism, demography, and the sociologies in the course of recent decades: Ryder (1965) contended that companion enrollment could be as imperative in deciding conduct as other social basic components, for example, financial status. Artisan et al. (1973) indicated the APC different grouping/bookkeeping model and characterized the ID issue in that.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem The Mason et al. (1973) article, specifically, brought forth a vast methodological writing, starting with Norval Glenn's (1976) evaluate: Glenn, N. D. 1976. "Accomplice Analysts' Futile Quest: Statistical Attempts to Separate Age, Period, and Cohort Effects." American Sociological Review, 41:900–905. also, Mason et al's. (1976) answer: Mason, W. M., K. O. Bricklayer, and H. H. Winsborough. 1976. "Answer to Glenn." American Sociological Review , 41:904-905.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem The Mason et al. answer proceeded with Bill Mason's work with Stephen Fienberg: Fienberg, Stephen E. furthermore, William M. Artisan. 1978. "Identification and Estimation of Age-Period-Cohort Models in the Analysis of Discrete Archival Data." Sociological Methodology 8:1-67, which finished in their 1985 altered volume: Fienberg, Stephen E. what's more, William M. Artisan, Eds. 1985. Associate Analysis in Social Research . New York: Springer-Verlag, a volume of the methodological writing on APC examination in the sociologies as of around 25 years prior.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem The studies of new methodologies additionally proceeded with; see, e.g., the article applying a Bayesian insights approach: Saski, M., & Suzuki, T. 1987. "Changes in Religious Commitment in the United States, Holland, and Japan." American Journal of Sociology, 92:1055–1076, and the investigate: Glenn, N. D. 1987. "A Caution About Mechanical Solutions to the Identification Problem in Cohort Analysis: A Comment on Sasaki and Suzuki." American Journal of Sociology , 95:754–761.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem Another approach, created by Firebaugh (1989), depends on a deterioration of progress after some time into the relative commitments of intracohort maturing and companion substitution; see Danigelis, Hardy, and Cutler (2007) for a current application. Firebaugh, Glenn. 1989. "Techniques for Estimating Cohort Replacement Effects." Sociological Methodology 19:243-262. Danigelis, Nicholas, Melissa Hardy, and Stephen J. Cutler. 2007. "Populace Aging, Intracohort Aging, and Sociopolitical Attitudes." American Sociological Review 72:812-830.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem This deterioration strategy, called for by Glenn (1977) and created by Firebaugh, was investigated by Rodgers (1990; with answer by Firebaugh (1990). Also, now Glenn (2005: 36) thinks neither this nor any comparative way to deal with deterioration "is extremely useful for comprehension change." Firebaugh, Glenn. 1990. "Substitution Effects, Cohort and Otherwise: Response to Rodgers." Sociological Methodology 20:439-446. Glenn, Norval D. 1977 [2005] Cohort Analysis , [2nd edition]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Rodgers, Willard L. 1990. "Translating the Components of Time Trends." Sociological Methodology 20:421-438.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem For extra material on these and related commitments to the writing on partner investigation, see the accompanying three late surveys: Mason, William M. also, N. H. Wolfinger. 2002. "Companion Analysis." Pp. 151-228 in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences . New York: Elsevier. Yang, Yang. 2006. "Age/Period/Cohort Distinctions." Encyclopedia of Health and Aging , K.S. Markides (ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem Where does this writing on accomplice examination abandon us today? In the event that a scientist has a transiently requested dataset and needs to coax out its age, period, and accomplice segments, by what means would it be a good idea for him to/she continue? Are there any methodological rules that can be prescribed?

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem The issue with a great part of the surviving writing is that there is an inadequacy of valuable rules on the most proficient method to direct an APC examination. Or maybe, the writing frequently prompts to the conclusion either that: it is difficult to get important assessments of the unmistakable commitments of age, day and age, and partner to the investigation of social change, or that: the lead of an APC examination is an exclusive craftsmanship that is best left to a couple of gifted methodologists.

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Part I: The Early Literature on Cohort Analysis and the Age-Period-Cohort (APC) Identification Problem My partners (Wenjiang Fu, Sam Schulhofer-Wohl, and Yang) and I look to change this circumstance by concentrating on late methodological commitments to APC examination that we and others have made for three moderately normal research plans. We feel that: advancements in measurements in the course of recent decades (e.g., blended (settled and arbitrary) impacts models, MCMC estimation of Bayesian models) can prompt to better strategies for APC examination that can be connected by common social researchers, and this, thusly, can prompt to the collection of more dependable information about age, period, and accomplice progression.

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Part II: First Research Design: APC Analysis of Age-by-Time Period Tables of Rates or Proportions Major References for Part II: Fu, W. J. 2000. "Edge Estimator in Singular Design with Application to Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Disease Rates." Communications in Statistics- - Theory and Method 29:263-278. Yang, Wenjiang J. Fu, and Kenneth C. Arrive. 2004. "A Methodological Comparison of Age-Period-Cohort Models: The Intrinsic Estimator and Conventional Generalized Linear Models." Sociological Methodology , 34:75-110. Yang, Sam Schulhofer-Wohl, Wenjiang J. Fu, and Kenneth C. Arrive. 2008. "The Intrinsic Estimator for Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: What It Is and How To Use It." American Journal of Sociology, 113(May) . Yang. 2008. "Drifts in U.S. Grown-up Chronic Disease Mortality, 1960-1999: Age, Period, and Cohort Variations." Demography 45(May).

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Part II: First Research Design: APC Analysis of Age-by-Time Period Tables of Rates or Proportions Data Structure: Tabular Rate Data

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Part II: First Research Design: APC Analysis of Age-by-Time Period Tables of Rates or Proportions Example: Lung Cancer Death Rates for U.S. Grown-up Females: 1960 - 1999 Source: CDC/NCHS Multiple Cause of Death File

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Part II: First Research Design: APC Accounting/Multiple Classification Model The Algebra of the APC Identification Problem Model Specification: (1) M ij indicates the watched event/presentation rate of passings for the i-th age bunch for i = 1,… ,an age bunches at the j-th day and age for j = 1,… , p eras of watched information D ij signifies the quantity of passings in the ij - th assemble, P ij indicates the extent of the assessed populace in the ij-th aggregate μ indicates the catch or balanced mean α i signifies the i-th push age impact or the coefficient for the i-th age amass β j means the j-th segment period impact or the coefficient for the j-th era γ k means the k-th associate impact or the coefficient for the k-th partner for k = 1,… ,(a+p-1) companions, with k=a-i+j ε ij signifies the arbitrary blunders with desire E( ε ij ) = 0 Fixed impact GLIM reparameterization: , or se

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