TRANSPORT and NETWORK LAYERS - Part 1

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Transport and Network Layers - TCP/IP (Part 1) . Part Objectives:Understand essential elements of transport and system layers Understand the

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TRANSPORT and NETWORK LAYERS - Part 1 Dr. V.T. Raja Oregon State University

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Transport and Network Layers - TCP/IP (Part 1) Chapter Objectives : Understand essential elements of transport and system layers Understand the "comprehensive view" Five-layer arrange show

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Examples of Transport/Network Layer Protocols Examples: Two well known transport/organize layer conventions Another case of convention in a WAN situation that is not prominent in North America Protocol for IBM good equipment/programming and centralized computer conditions

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Examples of Transport/Network Layer Protocols Examples: Two prevalent transport/arrange layer conventions TCP/IP IPX/SPX Another case of convention in a WAN domain that is not famous in North America X.25 Protocol for IBM perfect equipment/programming and centralized server situations SNA APPN

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TCP/IP Why TCP/IP? What is the extension of TCP/IP? What are the significant elements of TCP/IP?

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TCP/IP Why TCP/IP? Most generally utilized convention on Internet Estimated around 70-80% of LAN, MAN, and spine systems utilize TCP/IP Reliable convention TCP/IP plays out some blunder location/mistake amendment capacities, in spite of the fact that this is not an essential capacity of the system layer convention Compatible with numerous information connect conventions What is the development of TCP/IP? Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol What are the real elements of TCP/IP? Packetizing, Addressing and Routing

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TCP Main elements of TCP: Packetizing What is Packetizing? At sender At definite goal Thought Questions (as to the "comprehensive view"): With what layer(s) does TCP interface in the 5-layer display? On the off chance that more than two PCs are included in message transmission, then is TCP required in every one of the PCs? In what number of PCs is TCP included?

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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Main capacity of TCP: Packetizing – What is packetizing? At sender Break messages into bundles Assign parcel numbers At conclusive goal Check if all parcels have arrived Reassemble bundles Interfacing with two different layers Thought Questions (concerning the "10,000 foot view"): With what layer(s) does TCP interface in the 5-layer demonstrate? On the off chance that more than two PCs are included in message transmission, then is TCP required in every one of the PCs? In what number of PCs is TCP included?

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TCP (Continued) Some subtle elements on TCP header : TCP header containing 24 bytes (192-piece header) of overhead data is encased alongside client's information: Examples of overhead data included: Source and goal address Packet succession number Thought Question (with respect to the "10,000 foot view"): Didn't the information connect layer as of now have the source and goal address indicated in the DLH? Is TCP copying this capacity of DL?

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Token Ring and Ethernet Frames Token Ring group Start Frame Destination Source Message End delimiter control address variable delimiter Access Frame control check succession 1 byte 4 bytes Ethernet design Destination Source Length Message CRC-32 address 2 bytes variable 4 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes

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Port Identifiers Source Port IDs allude to programming utilized at application layer of source PC Destination Port IDs allude to programming to be utilized at application layer of conclusive goal PC With TCP/IP, every application layer programming has a remarkable port address/identifier. Each standard application layer programming on the Internet has a predefined (default) port number. Thought Questions: Could arrange directors pick not to utilize the default port numbers? Why might a system chief not have any desire to utilize a default port number?

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Internet Protocol (IP) What are IP's fundamental capacities? Primary capacities: Thought Question: Is IP included just at sender's or last goal PCs? Then again is it required in every interval PC that participate in the message directing too?

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Internet Protocol (IP) What are IP's principle capacities? Primary capacities: Addressing Routing Thought Question: Is IP convention included just at sender's or last goal PCs? Then again is it required in every between time PC that participate in the message directing too? IP is included at source and last goal, as well as required at each of the mediating PCs required in the message transmission.

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IP (Continued) Different renditions of IP IPv4 and IPv6 IP makes an IP header IP header contains (among other overhead data) source and goal address! Organize layer (IP) address Examples? Thought Question (as to the "master plan"): In what request are the diverse headers from various layers consolidated with the client information bundle? In the event that DL convention is Ethernet, and NL convention is TCP/IP, then what is the most extreme bundle estimate for client information? Accept DLH and DLT sizes whole to 26 bytes, TCP header size is 24 bytes, and IP header size is 24 bytes also. Test content in every header?

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IPv4 Addressing ICANN Every PC taking part on the Internet ought to utilize endorsed organize layer (IP) addresses. IP Addresses are endorsed by ICANN or one of a few privately owned businesses approved by ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers http://www.icann.org/FAQ on enrollment of IP locations http://www.internic.net/faqs/

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IPv4 Addressing Dotted Decimal Notation Dotted Decimal Notation Four bytes (8 bits = 1 byte) per address Each byte isolated by a spot Each byte communicated in decimal documentation Example: Dotted Decimal Notation: 192.16.224.254 Binary Notation?: What is the base decimal esteem any byte can be relegated? What is the most extreme decimal esteem any byte can be appointed?

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IPv4 Addressing Class Based Address Structure IP Addresses were gathered into classes: Classes A, B, C, D and E Classes A, B and C - utilized for business purposes The class of the address - dictated by looking at the primary byte of the deliver and mapping it to a scope of qualities as takes after: Class A: first byte is in the range 1 – 127 Class B: first byte is in the range 128 - 191 Class C: first byte is in the range 192 - 223

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IPv4 Addressing Network and Host Addresses Each IP address has two sections: Network Address (allocated/endorsed by ICANN) Host Address (alloted by host association) For a Class An IP address, the main byte is relegated/affirmed by ICANN Class A: Network.Host.Host.Host For a Class B IP address, the initial two bytes are doled out/affirmed by ICANN Class B: Network.Network.Host.Host For a Class C IP address, the initial three bytes are doled out/endorsed by ICANN Class C: Network.Network.Network.Host Restrictions for Host address: IP address can't end in 0 or 255

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IPv4 Addressing Class Participation Exercise # 1 Class Participation Exercise : If OSU has an IP address whose first byte is 128, what class does this IP deliver have a place with? To which of the four bytes of the IP address can OSU allocate values, expecting the primary byte has the esteem 128? an) Assume that ICANN has doled out OSU a gathering of IP locations, and that the initial two bytes (of each doled out IP address) are 130.192. For this situation, what number of IP locations are accessible for OSU? b) what number IP locations are accessible to OSU, if ICANN appointed OSU a class An IP address? c) what number IP locations are accessible to OSU, if ICANN allocated OSU a class C IP address?

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IPv4 Addressing (Continued) Subnets Part of a system that is coherently gathered by IP addresses Example: Suppose ICANN doled out OSU an arrangement of IP addresses as takes after: 128.193.x.x OSU doles out the host some portion of the IP address 128.193.75.x; (CS subnet) 128.193.76.x; (BSG subnet) 128.193.76.x; (COB subnets) Can have one subnet for personnel: 128.193.76.____ (workforce subnet) Can have one subnet for IS staff: 128.193.76.____ (IS staff subnet) Every PC in a TCP/IP system is doled out a subnet cover by the host association – Why?

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IPv4 Addressing Subnet Masks Subnet Mask Applications : Helps figure out whether sender and recipient are on same subnet. Why is this critical? Decides most extreme number of PCs per subnet Helps decide greatest number of subnets conceivable

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Subnet cover application Determining if sender and recipient are on same subnet How to figure out whether sender and collector are on the same subnet? Allude to calculation gave on partitioned present Examples: Are PC An (IP address: 128.193.78.3) and PC B (IP address: 128.193.78.250) on the same subnet? Do you have adequate data to answer the previously mentioned address? Class Participation Exercise # 2 (Question # 1)

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Subnets (Continued) Partial Subnetting Subnet cover default values Example: Class Participation Exercise # 2 (Question # 2) Partial Subnetting Subnet veils can likewise take values other than 0 or 255 Example 1: Subnet cover: 255.255.255.224 Sender's IP: 120.192.40.16 Receiver's IP: 120.192.40.30 Example 2: Class Participation Exercise # 2 (Question # 3)

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Subnet Mask Applications Subnet cover decides: if sender and beneficiary are on same subnet Determine greatest number of PCs per subnet Determine most extreme number of subnets conceivable Example 1: Background : Assume OSU is alloted a Class C address, and expect that the system administrator at OSU has chosen the subnet cover an incentive as: 255.255.255.248 Question: Find (a) greatest # of PCs per subnet and (b) greatest # of subnets conceivable

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Number of Subnets and Number of Computers Per Subnet Class C Addresses

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Class Participation Exercise # 2 – Question # 5 Backgroun

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