Transferable Diseases and Human Security

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Transferable Diseases and Human Security Kelechi Ohiri MD MPH MS Health, Nutrition, Population Human Development Network World Bank

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Outline of Presentation Part 1 – Overview of Communicable Diseases (CDs) Introduction and Definition Importance of CDs Selected CDs of Public Health Concern Part 2-Mounting a Global Response Approaches to mediation Key components of a worldwide reaction World Bank's part and contribution

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Human Security in a globalized world The changing part of strategy creators in an inexorably globalized world Shared space = Shared Destiny Local activities have worldwide results Global intercessions can accomplish positive nearby effect the length of human connections exist, Communicable infections will remain an issue.

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Communicable Diseases: Definition Defined as "any condition which is transmitted specifically or by implication to a man from a tainted individual or creature through the office of a middle of the road creature, host, or vector, or through the lifeless condition" . Transmission is encouraged by the accompanying (IOM) more regular human contact because of Increase in the volume and method for transportation (moderate universal air travel), globalization (expanded exchange and contact) Microbial adjustment and change Breakdown of general wellbeing limit at different levels Change in human socioeconomics and conduct Economic advancement and land utilize designs

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CD-Modes of transmission Direct Blood-borne or sexual – HIV, Hepatitis B,C Inhalation – Tuberculosis, flu, Bacillus anthracis Food-borne – E.coli, Salmonella, Contaminated water-Cholera, rotavirus, Hepatitis An Indirect Vector-borne-intestinal sickness, onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis Formites Zoonotic illnesses – creature taking care of and nourishing practices (Mad bovine malady, Avian Influenza)

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Importance of Communicable Diseases Significant weight of infection particularly in low and center pay nations Social effect Economic effect Potential for quick spread Human security concerns Intentional utilize

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Communicable Diseases represent a noteworthy worldwide ailment load In 2005, CDs represented around 30% of the worldwide BoD and 60% of the BoD in Africa. Cds regularly influence LIC and MICs lopsidedly. Represent 40% of the ailment trouble in low and center wage nations Most transferable sicknesses are preventable or treatable.

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Communicable Disease Burden Varies Widely Among Continents

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Communicable ailment trouble in Europe

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Causes of Death Vary Greatly by Country Income Level

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CDs have a huge social effect Disruption of family and interpersonal organizations Child-headed families, social rejection Widespread shame and segregation TB, HIV/AIDS, Leprosy Discrimination in work, schools, relocation approaches Orphans and helpless youngsters Loss of essential guardians Susceptibility to misuse and trafficking Interventions, for example, isolate measures may exasperate the social disturbance

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CDs have a critical financial effect in influenced nations At the full scale level Reduction in income for the nation (e.g. tourism) Estimated cost of SARS scourge to Asian nations: $20 billion (2003) or $2 million for each case. Drop in worldwide go to influenced nations by 50-70% Malaria causes a normal loss of 1.3% yearly GDP in nations with extraordinary transmission The torment episode in India cost the economy over $1 billion from travel limitations and embargoes At the family unit level Poorer families are lopsidedly influenced Substantial misfortune in efficiency and wage for the infirmed and parental figure Catastrophic expenses of treating sickness

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International limits are vanishing Borders are not extremely compelling at ceasing transmittable infections. With expanding globalization relationship of nations – more exchange and human/creature cooperations The ascent in universal activity and trade makes challenges significantly additionally overwhelming Other worldwide issues influence or are influenced by transferable illnesses. environmental change movement Change in biodiversity

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Human Security concerns Potential extent and quick spread of episodes/pandemics. e.g. SARS episode No nation or district can contain an out and out flare-up of Avian flu Bioterrorism and purposeful flare-ups Anthrax, Small pox New and re-rising illnesses Ebola, TB (MDR-TB and XDR-TB), HPAI, Rift valley fever.

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Select Communicable Diseases

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Tuberculosis 2 billion individuals tainted with organisms that cause TB. Not everybody creates dynamic malady A man is contaminated each second all around 22 nations represent 80% of TB cases. >50% cases in Asia, 28% in Africa (which additionally has the most astounding per capita predominance) In 2005, there were 8.8 million new TB cases; 1.6 million passings from TB (around 4400 a day) Highly disparaging sickness

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Tuberculosis and HIV 33% of those living with HIV are co-contaminated with TB About 200,000 individuals with HIV bite the dust every year from TB. Most normal entrepreneurial disease in Africa 70% of TB patients are co-tainted with HIV in a few nations in Africa Impact of HIV on TB is harder to analyze in HIV-constructive individuals. TB advances speedier in HIV-contaminated individuals. TB in HIV-constructive individuals is practically sure to be deadly if undiscovered or left untreated. TB happens prior over the span of HIV disease than numerous other crafty contaminations.

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Global Prevalence of TB cases (WHO)

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Tuberculosis Control Challenges for tuberculosis control MDR-TB - In many nations. Around 450000 new cases every year. XDR-TB cases affirmed in South Africa. Powerless wellbeing frameworks TB and HIV The Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015. a speculation of US$ 56 billion, a three-crease increment from 2005. The assessed financing hole is US$ 31 billion. Six stage technique: Expanding DOTS treatment; Health Systems Strengthening; Engaging all care suppliers; Empowering patients and groups; Addressing MDR TB, Supporting exploration

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Malaria Every year, 500 million individuals turn out to be seriously sick with jungle fever causes 30% of Low birth weight in babies Globally. >1 million individuals kick the bucket of jungle fever consistently. One tyke bites the dust from it like clockwork 40% of the total populace is at danger of jungle fever. Most cases and passings happen in SSA. Jungle fever is the 9 th driving reason for death in LICs and MICs 11% of adolescence passings overall inferable from intestinal sickness SSA kids represent 82% of jungle fever passings around the world

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Annual Reported Malaria Cases by Country (WHO 2003)

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Global intestinal sickness commonness

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Malaria Control Malaria control Early analysis and incite treatment to cure patients and lessen parasite store Vector control: Indoor leftover splashing Long enduring Insecticide treated bed nets Intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant ladies Challenges in jungle fever control Widespread imperviousness to routine hostile to intestinal sickness drugs Malaria and HIV Health Systems Constraints Access to administrations Coverage of avoidance mediations

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HIV/AIDS In 2005, 38.6 million individuals worldwide were living with HIV, of which 24.7 million (66%) lived in SSA 4.1 million individuals overall turned out to be recently contaminated 2.8 million individuals lost their lives to AIDS New diseases happen prevalently among the 15-24 age aggregate. Already obscure around 25 years back. Has influenced more than 60 million individuals up until this point.

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HIV Co-contaminations Impact of TB on HIV TB impressively abbreviates the survival of individuals with HIV/AIDS. TB slaughters up to half of all AIDS patients around the world. TB microscopic organisms quicken the advance of AIDS contamination in the patient HIV and Malaria Diseases of destitution HIV tainted grown-ups are at danger of creating serious intestinal sickness Acute jungle fever scenes briefly increment HIV viral load Adults with low CD4 number more powerless to treatment disappointment

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Global HIV Burden

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HIV/AIDS Interventions rely on upon Epidemiology – method of transmission, age aggregate Stage of scourge –concentrated versus summed up Elements of a powerful intercession Strong political support and empowering condition. Connecting aversion to care and access to care and treatment Integrate it into neediness diminishment and address sexual orientation disparity Effective checking and assessment Strengthening the wellbeing framework and Multisectoral approaches Challenges in anticipation and scaling up treatment all inclusive incorporate Constraints to access to care and treatment Stigma and separation Inadequate counteractive action measures. Co-contaminations (TB, Malaria)

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Avian Influenza Seasonal flu causes serious disease in 3-5 million individuals and 250000 – 500000 passings yearly 1 st H5N1 avian flu case in Hong Kong in 1997. By October 2007 – 331 human cases, 202 passings.

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Avian Influenza Control relies on upon the period of the pestilence Pre-Pandemic Phase Reduce open door for human contamination Strengthen early cautioning framework Emergence of Pandemic infection Contain as well as postpone the spread at source Pandemic Declared Reduce mortality, dismalness and social disturbance Conduct research to guide reaction measures Antiviral medicines – Oseltamivir, Amantadine Vaccine – still exploratory a work in progress. Must be created in critical amount after a flare-up

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Confirmed human instances of HPAI

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Migratory pathway for winged creatures and Avian flu

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Neglected sicknesses Cause more than 500,000 passings and 57 million DALYs every year. Incorporate the accompanying Helminthic contaminations Hookworm (Ascaris, trichuris), lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, dracunculiasis Protozoan diseases Leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis, Chagas illness Bacterial contaminations Leprosy, trachoma, buruli ulcer

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Communicable Disease and Human Security Part