The third Annual Terasem Colloquium

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Challenges. Development of Legal and Ethical Definitions of the Person in a Technical Environment (

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The 3 rd Annual Terasem Colloquium The Tao of Personhood: The Yin and Yang of the Property-Person Continuum

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Challenges Expansion of Legal and Ethical Definitions of the Person in a Technical Environment ("Evolving Notions of Personhood")

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3 Case Scenarios not long from now Chimpanzee with vocal strings Artificial womb – personhood will no longer depend practicality or be attached to control over one's own body Cyborg troopers, made with extra parts

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Divergent Paths of Intelligence-Hardware, Software, Human Three Overlapping Areas of Evolution Sentient Machines (AI) Disembodied Entities (Avatars) Human Technogenics (or Cyborgs)

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Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance N anotechnology, B iotechnology, I nformation Technology, and C ognitive Science NSF/DOC-supported report June 2002 Arlington, Virginia The NBIC Report

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Some expected NIBC adjustments Improving work productivity and learning Enhancing tangible and intellectual abilities Revolutionary changes in medicinal services Enhancing human capacities for military purposes Nanotechnology-based inserts Brain-to-cerebrum and mind to-machine interfaces (pp. ix-xi)

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Human Intelligence Augmentation to stay aware of AI

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CogAug & Uploads as Safe AGI Perhaps all AGI ought to be driven by warm blooded creature birthplace brains

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Property – Personhood Dichotomy in Law Historically, nonhuman creatures have been considered "property", Slaves, ladies, and kids were viewed as simple asset until mid-to-late 1800's and mid 1900's Yet, nonhumans elements, for example, partnerships and boats have been perceived and given rights as "people"

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Humans and Persons All people are people BUT, the law says… All "people" are NOT humans...for case, companies, regions, even ships have been allowed status as people by the US Supreme Court

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Current Legal Spectrum U.S. Incomparable Court cases give a range: "Characteristic" Persons (e.g. outsiders, minors, ill-conceived) to "Juridical" Persons (e.g., organizations, worker's guilds, districts, government units. No present authoritative or statutory definition

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One Proposed Legal (Statutory) Definition The term "human being" implies: ( i ) any substance having at least one of the higher resources, for example, the capacity to reason (counting, yet not constrained to, the capacity to utilize realities and contend them, to touch base at determinations from premises in a coherent way, to disclose watched wonders and to shape convictions in light of certainties);

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Definition cont'd the capacity to assess standards and perceptions to land at contemplated choices; the capacity to detail discourse and convey; the capacity to compose; the capacity to create important individual associations with other people on the premise of fairness; the exhibit of attention to self as a novel and separate being; the capacity to feel sympathy toward others; or whatever other higher workforce;

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Definition cont'd (ii) any feasible animal that is the consequence of the union of ovum and sperm of guardians who are people, regardless of whether the union of ovum and sperm was in utero , and regardless of whether the hereditary material of the subsequent fetus was experimentally adjusted.

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Some Ethical/legitimate Issues in Converging Tech we are probably going to confront throughout the following 25 years Privacy, secrecy Informed assent (Artificial Research Subjects) Augmentation: Enhancement versus helpful, the President's bonus report Emotions, fitness, self-governance, and the law Capability and culpability (relative self-rule) Synthetic people: would they say they are people or property? Issues of Identity another vocabulary, scientific categorization to portray new, complex connections. (Individual Cognitive Aides) Issues of equity and value (the "computerized isolate")

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Criteria for Personhood? Every single Living Thing Consciousness Sentience Peter Singer & Tom Regan Self-Awareness Rationality Descartes

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Joseph Fletcher's 15 Propositions for Personhood 1. least insight, 2. mindfulness, 3. poise 4. a feeling of time 5. a feeling of futurity 6. a feeling of the previous 7. the ability of identifying with others, 8. sympathy toward others, 9. correspondence 10. control of presence 11. interest, 12. change and variability 13. adjust of objectivity and feeling, 14. eccentricity 15. neocortical working

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What Beings Should be Considered Persons? Hatchlings? (Personhood for Embryos Referendum in Colorado) Animals? Counterfeit consciousness? Classes in the middle? Creatures with Numerous Neural Implants and Augmentations?

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Robot Rights Which minds have which rights and duties? Building slave minds versus Thriving personalities, however inside social points of confinement?

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Sex and Marriage with Robots? In the first place, AI needs to accomplish the status of legitimate personhood before any such thing as marriage (or whatever other legally binding relationship so far as that is concerned) is perceived. Besides, What do people owe "reason manufactured" machines who start to achieve mindfulness, or to so look like mindfulness that it turns into an offering point? Thirdly, would these robots be conscious - fit for experience joy and agony? Since the demonstration of making possibly conscious creatures conveys with it the relating duty regarding their activities and for the effect on the human group, the biosphere of the earth and the universe in general.

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What the Courts have said… The U.S. Court of International Trade, in Toy Biz, Inc. v. Joined States in levy debate U.S. Traditions arranged the activity figures as dolls speaking to just individuals. Toy Biz contended that the activity figures were toys or non-human animals (i.e. robots and beasts). The Court held that the activity figures did not speak to individuals since they had "mechanical" elements or 'beast like' elements.

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Identity and Rights Jack-O-Lantern case – US Supreme Court 1922 'In reconstructing operations the test is whether the character of the vessel has proceeded, or has been stifled… This court has not attempted and won't currently exposition to report unbending meanings of repairs and new development; yet we don't acknowledge the proposal that the two things can be precisely separated by thought of a definitive use to which the vessel is to be committed. Held notwithstanding broad repairs, personality continued as before

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Legal and Ethical Considerations While the law is very much prepared to hold a self-ruling individual guilty for his or her activities, the law is not all that all around intended for such frameworks. These rising advancements displays a one of a kind test for the lawful calling to help shape approach, since the innovation is front line and statutes, case law, or law diaries are normally composed afterward.

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Legal and Ethical Considerations Rights of the Individual versus Privileges of Persons versus Property Persons - > Persons + Augmentation <- Machines

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Legal and Ethical Considerations One of the inquiries confronting our courts will be: the place do the privileges of a self-governing framework start, accepting that an individual is a natural piece of that self-governing framework? Regardless of whether utilizing a property-personhood division or property-individual continuum, the privileges of the individual may change when the human execution of the individual is improved by machine or other innovation. This raises issues about protection, self-governance, and culpability.

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Property-Personhood Continuum (Proposed Legal Paradigm) Property (Inanimate Objects) Quasi-property (Chimeric Humanoids) Fetuses Embryos Ex Utero Cognitively weakened Full Personhood (Attendant rights & obligations) Androids An/I Cyborgs Negative Liberties Biotechnology at the Margins of Personhood: An Evolving Legal Paradigm, J. of Evolution and Technology

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Recommendations and Conclusions As various types of figments and cyborgs are made in the specialized conditions, the courts will be the ones to figure out where these manifestations fall on the continuum of personhood.

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Recommendations and Conclusions The foundation of a typical dictionary between approach producers, usage operators, and multidisciplinary clients for terms, for example, "self-governing" The foundation of new vocabulary for the new connections that are being made as consequence of new innovations, with keen thought to the effect on current educated assent arrangement. The likelihood of legitimate change and the formation of specific science courts, where the judges will have continuous instruction and preparing to perceive and manage these new lawful issues and classifications that emerge from developing advances.

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A Double Edged Sword "Innovation has dependably been a twofold edged sword, engaging both our imaginative and our dangerous natures. It has brought us longer and more beneficial lives, opportunity from physical and mental drudgery, and numerous new innovative conceivable outcomes. However it has likewise presented new and remarkable risks… Stalin's tanks and Hitler's trains utilized innovation. Regardless we live today with adequate atomic weapons—not all of which give off an impression of being very much represented—to end all mammalian life on the planet." – Ray Kurzweil

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