The Role of Leadership in Managing the Development Process - The instance of the Ramos Administration in the Philippine

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The Role of Leadership in Managing the Development Process - The instance of the Ramos Administration in the Philippines - Policy Formulation in Developing Countries GRIPS Development Forum

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The Government structure in the Philippines Presidential government involved three branches (partition of the three forces): Executive Legislative Judiciary Executive branch intermittently tested by authoritative intercession and legal activism Legislature Judiciary President Intervention Technocrats (Central Economic Agencies) Ministries, divisions, other state organs and neighborhood governments Executive

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Comparison of three progressive political organizations in the Philippines

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The Philippines President Marcos 10 th President 30 December 1965 – 25 February 1986 President Aquino 11 th President 25 February 1986 – 30 June 1992 President Ramos 12 th President 30 June 1992 – 30 June 1998

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Early life and expert foundation of President Ramos Graduated from the US Military Academy in West Point Obtained a Masters Degree in Civil Engineering from the Univ. of Illinois in the US Served the Marcos " s tyrant administration for over 20 years – in the military, as the Vice Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Played a key part in the People Power Revolution in 1986 – rebellion against Marcos and favored Aquino Served as Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, and later turned into the Secretary of National Defense amid the Aquino organization Assumed the Presidency at 64 years old – the most established individual to end up president of the Philippines

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Initial difficulties of the Ramos Administration (1992-1998) Weak bolster base a minority President at a gazing position Weak foundations bureaucratic latency and solid control by intrigue bunches Political precariousness three revolt amasses in the nation Macroeconomic shakiness challenges acquired from the past organization Poor condition of the nation " s framework basic bottleneck to monetary development Power emergency of 1990s national direness expected to determine with most extreme need

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Development vision of the Ramos Administration – Philippines 2000 Development objective: The Philippines to wind up a recently industrializing economy by 2000 Two columns: (1) maintainable financial advancement, and (2) individuals strengthening Seven focuses in stage: (1) political steadiness, (2) monetary development, (3) individuals strengthening, (4) viable administration, (5) ecological security, (6) mindful outside arrangement, and (7) moral recuperation Specific guide posts: Raising per capita wage to in any event U$1,000 by 1998; Achieving GDP development by no less than 6 to 8 %; Reducing destitution frequency down to 30% by 1998.

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Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP 1992-98) as a solid program of activity Major change motivation: Realizing political steadiness Opening up economy and contending on the planet advertise Developing a business-accommodating environment Promoting privatization and rivalry, and cut down wastefulness Breaking up restraining infrastructures and cartels, and to annihilate buddy free enterprise Promoting Social Reform Agenda Fighting against defilement Restructuring organization and encouraging collaboration between government, business, individuals " s associations and NGOs Strengthening duty and traditions organization Reforming legitimate and legal framework

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Distinguishing components of President Ramos " s administration style President Ramos embraced participatory, accord building approach in arrangement prepare  empowered him to win political support from various partners, and encouraged his improvement situated dreams to figure it out. Inclusivity Collaborative Reformist Accountability for results Complete Staff Work (CSW) Interview with asset people in the Philippines, Oct.25, 2007

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President Ramos " s working style that applied impact on its improvement administration "Maybe in light of the fact that I am a military man via preparing and a specialist and developer by foundation, I conveyed to the administration an alternate perspective of how issues ought to be confronted and aced… Trials and difficulties for me are not wrangles over standards and creeds. They should rather be overcome in the most realistic, savvy, and quickest way." President Fidel V. Ramos, The Ramos Presidency and Administration, Record and Legacy (1992-1998), Univ. of the Philippines Press (1998)

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President Ramos " s working style that applied impact on its advancement administration (cont.) Ramos' disciplinary, "hands-on arrangement" viably prepared individuals to be activity situated for results and to be responsible to individuals – Ramos gave individuals a solid feeling of responsibility for change and certainty. "Ramos Administration was the best time in organization. He was a skilled political pioneer to impact strategy and prepare individuals, as well as catch creative ability of organization." Democratic disapproved and open to new thoughts Delegated power to Cabinet Secretaries and important partners Complete Staff Work Fast following Consensus building Coalition building Work morals giving feeling of direness to complete things immediately Facilitated private area support and use Interview with asset people in the Philippines, Oct. 2007

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President Ramos " s reasoning <Critical components supporting nation " s foundations> Leadership Team work and national solidarity National pride and soul <Principles in issue solving> Analyze the circumstance  investigation must be founded on truths Consult with different significant individuals, and think of one choice  pioneer must be definitive, in view of a reasonable judgment Never dismiss the vision  key, in reverse arranging is basic Interview with President Ramos, Oct.24, 2007

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Reform encounter under the Ramos Administration 1. The instance of the power area change Background of the power emergency (hit a top in 1992, with every day brownouts enduring 10-12 hour): Root issues could be followed to the 1983 remote obligation emergency under the Marcos Regime The Department of Energy (DOE) was canceled and decreased to an Office of Energy Affairs under the Office of the President amid the Aquino Administration Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) extend, which was planned to give shabby power, was retired amid the Aquino Administration

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President Ramos " s initiative and political will to conquer the power emergency President Ramos supported private segment interest in determining the emergency  called for auxiliary approach changes and institutional changes, including privatization and deregulation Ramos pushed Congress to rapidly pass the laws in determining the power emergency: The Electric Power Crisis Act of 1993 (RA 7648) The altered Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Law As a result, control industry has changed from an administration imposing business model (i.e., National Power Corporation), to a profoundly aggressive, private-part ruled industry.

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Coordination among significant partners to conquer the power emergency <Coalition working in Congress> Ramos encouraged the Congress to affirm the Electric Power Crisis Act, and corrections to the BOT law Ramos made and completely used the Legislative-Executive Development Advisory Council (LEDAC), a discussion for accord working between the Executive and the Legislative on vital bills <Responding to the Judicial activism> Ramos organization selected judges that were expert market and liberal disapproved. Likewise, some ODA-financed specialized help was worked out for the Judiciary in support of a legal change program. <Consensus working among the Executive, Congress and the private sector> Ramos assembled a Multisectoral People " s Summit in 1993 to fashion a typical authoritative motivation steady of advancement objectives Dante B. Canlas, "Political Governance, Economic Policy Reforms, and Aid Effectiveness: The Case of the Philippines with Lessons from the Ramos Administration"

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Coordination among applicable partners to conquer the power emergency (cont.) <Relationship between the legislature and the private sector> The Ramos Administration embraced different measures to decrease social, monetary, and political dangers to the private segment and empowered their support  e.g., " take-or-pay " courses of action under the Electric Power Crisis Act, and " improvements " under the Amended BOT Law <Relationship between the legislature and the people> The Ramos Administration received measures to diminish end-clients " trouble on the electric power charge by having the administration assume control over the expenses However, such game plans in the end bothered the financial circumstance of the NPC, which prompted to the way for its privatization  The power emergency was such a national desperation, to the point that Ramos had no other decision to beat the circumstance

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Creation of LEDAC for accord working between the official and the authoritative Legislative-Executive Development Advisory Council (LEDAC) Ramos practiced solid activity to make LEDAC as a counseling and consultative body to guarantee arrangement consistency between the two branches of government (Dec. 1992) Ramos completely used LEDAC and nearly followed up arrangement motivation at issue through this component LEDAC met each week with President Ramos as Chairman  the congressional plan amid the Ramos Administration more adjusted to the administrators

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Reform encounter under the Ramos Administration 2. The instance of the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) Background of propelling the SRA: Ramos received the SRA in 1994 as the centerpiece against destitution program – the aftereffect of an extensive variety of interviews that underscored t