# The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

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The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Iota. Section 7. Light and the Electromagnetic Range. Wave - A vibrational aggravation which transmits vitality. Definitions. Wavelength ( ? , Greek lambda) - The separation between indistinguishable focuses on progressive waves.

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Slide 1

﻿The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom Chapter 7

Slide 5

Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Slide 7

Wave - A vibrational unsettling influence which transmits vitality.

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Definitions Wavelength (  , Greek lambda) - The separation between indistinguishable focuses on progressive waves. Recurrence (  , Greek nu) - The quantity of pinnacles that pass a given point in a moment recurrence = cycles/sec = hertz = Hz Speed of light, c =  - 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec = 3.00 x 10 cm/sec

Slide 9

Sodium vapor lights - the yellow road lights - transmit light with  = 589.2 nm. What is its recurrence?

Slide 10

KPBS has a recurrence of 89.5 (MHz = 10 6 cycles/sec). What is the wavelength of this radiation in meters?

Slide 11

Planck's Quantum Theory Max Planck Blackbody radiation Intensity shifts with wavelength (red-orange-white) Classical material science doesn't clarify

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Experiment 1 Add a basic gas to a cathode beam tube and get - hues Hydrogen (H 2 ) purple blue Neon (Ne) red orange Helium (He) yellow pink Argon (Ar) lavender Xenon (Xe) blue

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Experiment 2 Shine white light through a crystal - rainbow A crystal isolates light of various wavelength, each shading speaks to an alternate wavelength. Sundog – brought on by ice going about as a crystal.

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Experiment 3 Shine the hued light from our gas release tubes through a crystal  get unmistakable groups of shading (light).

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Quantization of vitality Energies in iotas are quantized, not persistent. Quantized means just certain energies permitted.

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Bohr model of the molecule Electrons circle the core like little planets (planetary model) each with its own particular vitality. Electrons can move starting with one vitality level then onto the next by engrossing or discharging vitality. Vitality is discharged as brilliant vitality or light.

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Quantum of vitality the littlest amount of vitality that can be transmitted (or assimilated) as electromagnetic radiation. Vitality (1 quantum) = h  or vitality = n h  n = number of quanta of vitality (must be an entire number) h = Planck's consistent = 6.626 x 10  34 J sec  = recurrence

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What is the base vitality of a sodium light (with  = 5.892 x 10  7 m and  = 5.09 x 10 14/sec)?

Slide 20

Calculate the vitality of a quantum of blue light with wavelength = 410 nm.

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Photoelectric Effect Observation - Electrons can be launched out from a few metals when they are presented to light. Is light carrying on like a molecule which can ricochet electrons out of particles? Light can carry on as both a wave and a molecule and vitality is quantized the same in any case.

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If a light with a wavelength of 200 nm sparkles on sodium iotas with an ionization vitality of 496 kJ/mol, what will be the speed of the electrons radiated?

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deBroglie

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deBroglie Wavelength Calculate the wavelength in nanometers related with a 0.072 kg golf ball moving at 30 m/sec?

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Quantized Energy

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Energy Levels for H where n in a whole number.

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Derivation of Balmer-Rydberg condition  E = E n last  E n introductory

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What Next? Light carries on like waves - and particles. Particles can act like waves. Vitality is quantized. ???????

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle The primary thing we might want to find out about electrons is the place they are and how they travel. Heisenberg Uncertainty standard says this is incomprehensible. (  x)(  mv)  h/4  (  10  34 kg m 2/sec)

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Schrodinger's quantum mechanical model of the particle  E  = H  is the wave work or orbital  2 (likelihood work) speaks to the likelihood of finding an electron at any given position in a molecule.

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Quantum Numbers The conduct of an electron is depicted scientifically by Schrodinger's wave condition and each orbital contains as set of three factors called quantum numbers.

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The key quantum number (n) - · a whole number · decides vitality level of orbital

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Angular force quantum number ( l )- - equivalent to (n-1) to 0 so for n = 1, l = 0 for n = 2, l = 0, or 1 for n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2 · decides kind of subshell of an electron quantum number subshell sort 0 s 1 p 2 d 3 f

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Magnetic quantum number ( m l ) · equivalent to - l to + l in number augmentations · recognizes number of orbitals inside a sublevel portrays spatial introduction orbitals inside a sublevel

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· equivalent to +1/2 or  1/2 · vital in light of the fact that each orbital contains 2 electrons and every electron needs its own particular space. Turn quantum number (m s )

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s orbitals · circular fit as a fiddle · one spatial introduction ( m l = 0) · contain hubs as move to higher quantum levels (hubs are spots likelihood of finding an electron goes to zero) · bodes well in the event that we take a gander at electrons as waves, waves have hubs.

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p orbitals · dumbbell molded · three distinctive spatial introductions ( m l =1, 0,  1,)

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d orbitals · cloverleaf formed + one dumbbell in a donut · five diverse spatial introductions ( m l = 2, 1, 0,  1,  2)

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f orbitals · complex shape (8 projections) · seven diverse spatial introductions ( m l = 3, 2, 1, 0,  1,  2,  3)