The most effective method to Provide a Safe and Stimulating Classroom Environment for Students with Down Syndrome-A Med

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Down Syndrome. Dr. John Langdon Down portrayed the disorder in 1866. Determination was made clinically until 1959The chromosome variation from the norm was found in 1959. Down disorder is one of the first side effect edifices connected with mental impediment to be recognized as a disorder.. Down Syndrome Overview.

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Instructions to Provide a Safe and Stimulating Classroom Environment for Students with Down Syndrome-A Medical and Educational Perspective February 26, 2008 Toni Benton, M.D. Metro Area Regional Medical Consultant Continuum of Care Project UNM HSC School of Medicine

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Down Syndrome Dr. John Langdon Down portrayed the disorder in 1866. Conclusion was made clinically until 1959 The chromosome variation from the norm was found in 1959. Down disorder is one of the main indication edifices related with mental hindrance to be recognized as a disorder.

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Down Syndrome Overview It is the most widely recognized example of human mutation with an occurrence in the overall public of 1 in 800-1000 live births. More than 350,000 individuals in the United States have Down disorder. A high connection exists between expanding maternal age and the nearness of an additional chromosome in the posterity. In this way, the normal rate of Down disorder in a lady 20 years old is 1 in 1,925 contrasted with a normal rate of Down disorder in a lady 45 years old of 1 in 20.

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Down Syndrome Genetics All people with Down disorder have copied chromosome 21 material The source of the copied hereditary material can shift Nondisjunction (around 96% of cases) The additional chromosome may emerge by anomalous sorting to create an additional, unsupported chromosome (trisomy 21) Translocation (3 % of cases) a joining of chromosomes to deliver additional chromosome 21 material that is connected to another chromosome Mosaicism (1-2%) Patients with blends of ordinary and trisomic cells (mosaic Down disorder) frequently have milder phenotypes. Rates of typical cells inside the blood test utilized for chromosome studies may vary from the rates of ordinary cells in different tissues like mind or heart.

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Trisomy 21 Karyotype

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Extensive mapping of qualities on this "critical region" of chromosome 21 is under route as a feature of the human genome activity. The components by which expanded dose of these qualities prompts to the Down disorder phenotype are so far obscure.

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Clinical Features Extra and free neck skin Single wrinkles on the palms Clinodactyly (bended fifth finger) Broad space between the first and second toes A profound plantar wrinkle The tongue regularly juts, more on account of low muscle tone than genuine growth.

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Clinical Features As with all disorders, the example of minor and real imperfections in Down disorder shifts from individual to person. None of the abnormalities taken alone are particular or analytic for Down disorder. At the point when Down disorder is suspected, a chromosome consider (karyotype) will affirm or prohibit the conclusion.

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Clinical Features Central hair whorl (cowlick) Flat occiput (back of the head) Upslanting eyes Epicanthal folds (overlays around the bend of the eye) White spots in the iris of the eye (Brushfield spots) Upturned nose

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Congenital Heart Disease Seizures Eye Anomalies Hearing Loss Genito-Urinary Tract Anomalies Respiratory Disease Obesity Sleep Apnea Developmental Delays Blood Disease Endocrine Disease Blood Disorders Alzheimer's Disease Related Conditions

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Heart Defects 40% of people with Down disorder have some type of intrinsic heart imperfection AV (atrioventricular) Septal deformity Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Tetralogy of Fallot Aberrant Subclavian Artery Pulmonary Hypertension Adolescents and youthful grown-ups can create heart valve brokenness notwithstanding when they have had no history of inherent heart issues. SBE prophylaxis might be important.

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Brushfield spots (dotting of the iris) Fine Lens Opacities Nystagmus Strabismus Keratoconus Ptosis Cataracts Astigmatism Hyperopia (far sightedness) Myopia (partial blindness) Blepharitis Tear Duct Obstruction Ophthalmologic Features

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Ophthalmologic Features Keratoconus Brushfield Spots

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Hearing Loss Can be conductive, sensorineural or both Can be one-sided or reciprocal Often undiscovered Change in learning or conduct consider hearing screen Etiology can be multifactorial Narrow back throat structures Subtle resistant lack bringing about intermittent ear diseases

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Pyloric stenosis Tracheo-esophageal fistula Esophageal atresia (block of the throat) Duodenal atresia (check of the duodenum). Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD) Constipation Hirschprung's illness Celiac ailment Imperforate Anus Neonatal Liver Disease (uncommon) Gastrointestinal Disease

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Respiratory Disorders Otitis media Sinusitis Pneumonia Sleep apnea Dysphagia/oromotor brokenness Aspiration Pulmonary Hypertension

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Dental Diseases Microdontias Missing Teeth/Fused Teeth Delayed tooth ejection (1-2 years after the fact than normal) Malocclusions Periodontal ailment Gingivitis prompting to loss of Alveolar bone Dental Caries happen with lower commonness than in the all inclusive community

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Genitourinary Tract Anomalies Micropenis Cryptoorchidism Infertility Cystitis/Urinary Tract Infections Renal Anomalies Wilm's Tumor

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Endocrine Disorders Congenital hypothyroidism Thyroid Disease Diabetes Failure to Thrive-in outset and early youth Obesity Short Stature Lipid variations from the norm

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Blood Disorders Immune Dysfunction Myeloid Proliferation Leukemia 1 in 150 in kids with Down disorder contrasted and 1 in 2800 in youngsters everywhere Platelet Disorders White platelet impedance Erythrocytosis (optional to interminable hypoxia)

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Skin Conditions Most identified with Immune brokenness/Inflammatory reaction Atopic (dermatitis) Seborrheic Dermatitis Vitiligo Chelitis Ichthyosis Xerosis Alopecia Areata Syringomas Onychomycosis

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The Neurology of Down Syndrome The sensory system is constantly influenced in Down syndrome.  Developmental Delays Hypotonia Atlantoaxial flimsiness Symptomatic - versus Asymptomatic Seizures Mental Health Disorders Alzheimer's Disease

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Brain pathology Slightly littler cerebrum estimate for age. Shorter distance across for the foremost back mind estimation. A strangely soak slant to the back segments of the cerebrum. Deficiently created prevalent worldly gyrus. It is not known how these components add to the formative inabilities of Down disorder.

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Brain Pathology Post-mortem cerebrum thinks about demonstrate that basically all people more than 50 with Down disorder have obsessive plaques and neurofibrillary tangles-the signs of Alzheimer's infection, However just 15-20% of people with Down disorder have clinical indications of the turmoil The commonness of Alzheimer's is substantially more pervasive than in the all inclusive community. It is vital to preclude treatable reasons for decrease in mental working (thyroid issues, B vitamin inadequacies, vision and hearing issues, dejection, rest apnea, polypharmacy, and so forth.) before bouncing to the conclusion that an individual has Alzheimer's. 

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Neurodevelopmental and conduct Impairments Aggressive Behavior (7%) ADHD (6%) Conduct/Oppositional Disorder (5%) Anxiety Disorders (5%) Self Injurious Behavior ( 1%) Autism (1%)

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Seizures happen in 6% of people with Down disorder Most normal seizure sort is summed up tonic clonic Age of onset ordinarily bimodal dissemination Onset before age 3 Onset after age 13

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Neurologic Language Delays Receptive dialect has a tendency to be superior to anything expressive Central Hypotonia Gross engine Delays Oral engine brokenness Poor oral engine coordination Decreased tactile mindfulness

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Most individuals with Down disorder have some level of scholarly incapacity. The level normally falls into the mellow to direct range. Not characteristic of the numerous qualities and abilities that every individual has. Kids with Down disorder figure out how to sit, walk, talk, play, can prepare and do most different exercises just to some degree later than their companions without down disorder.

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Early intercession administrations, which start not long after birth, help youngsters with Down disorder create to their maximum capacity. Quality instructive projects, alongside an animating home condition and great restorative care empower individuals with Down disorder to wind up distinctly contributing individuals from their families and groups.

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Early Intervention Works! Only 10 years prior, the guess for these kids was not as splendid as it is today. Early Intervention programs from birth to age 3 have demonstrated noteworthy outcomes. Families get preparing in how to help their youngsters figure out how to amplify the improvement that happens in the early years. What's more, numerous kids get: PT OT Speech Therapy Aqua treatment Hippotherapy Music treatment Infant training independently and in gatherings

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Studies have shown social, scholastic, and behavioral advantages for understudies with inabilities who are put in comprehensive settings, without adversely affecting the instructive experience of alternate understudies. (Becker, Dumas, and Roberts ,2000) Many kids with Down disorder, on the off chance that they were in the specialized curriculum or independent classroom, would not have an indistinguishable measure of dialect advancement from their non-crippled companions. "The learning attributes of understudies with Down Syndrome are more like their customary instruction peers than they are distinctive. In any case, dialect and motivational insufficiencies may require all the more profoundly organized, sequenced exercises, with littler bits of data displayed at once, and bunches of prizes and acclaim incorporated with the plan of the lesson" (Wolpert, 2001). Incorporation

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Learning qualities Strong here and now visual memory High social/interpersonal insight Learning shortcomings Poor here and now sound-related memory Difficulty with essential math aptitudes .:tslid