The Integumentary System

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´╗┐The Integumentary System I. Capacities: A. Security B. Temperature control C. Discharge D. Vitamin D union (calcitriol) E. Sensation

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II. Life systems of the skin A. Three districts 1. Epidermis (surface coat) stratified epithelium 2. Dermis (main part of the skin) thick unpredictable connective 3. Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) free conn tissue, fat

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B. Layers of Epidermis 1 . Stratum Corneum-shallow keratin (hard, H2O insoluble protein) keratinocytes begin profound (can get to be dandruff, callus) 2. Stratum Lucidum just in "thick" skin

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3. Stratum granulosum-keratinocytes kick the bucket 4. Stratum spinosum - Langerhans cells 5. Stratum basale - profound layer close dermis - keratinocyte division, melanocytes

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C. Cells of the Epidermis 1. Keratinocytes (90% of epidermal cells) 2. Melanocytes-(2-3% of cells) - cocoa skin color guides in UV light retention - can increment/diminish generation

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3. Langerhans cells - <1% cells, resistant 4. Merkel cell - touch sensation

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D. Dermis layer of the skin 1. Organization: Gel framework (hydrated)- fibers:collagen, elastin Cells: Fibroblasts Macrophages Leukocytes, pole cells (heparin)

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2. Layers of the Dermis: a. Papillary layer(boundary) - areolar tissue - free nerve endings, papilla (fingerprints) - trade of materials, connection b. Reticular layer-extreme thick sporadic tissue - striae & flexure lines

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E. Subcutaneous Layer 1. Organization - Loose connective tissue delicate gel (water + collagen), elastin, less filaments than dermis - (fat) variable sum pads, skin shapes, insulator, vitality depot

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F. Skin subsidiaries 1. Sweat organs (sudoriferous) eccrine-thermoregulation apocrine-connected with hair follicle 2.Sebaceous organ (oil) universal exhausts into hair follicle,skin

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3. Hair Column of keratinized cells epidermal cells of follicle stretches out into the dermis development/rest movement is repetitive - vellus versus terminal Hair misfortune, Alopecia arrector pili-smooth muscle

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4. Nails (fingers, toes) Analogous to hair - keratin in stratum corneum however not melanocytes Protective Function

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Skin Color (shades): 1. Melanin (yellow-cocoa dark) 2. Carotene (yellow-orange) - collects in corneum 3. Hemoglobin (red) erythema versus cyanosis Influenced by blood stream, liver (jaundice)

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Aging changes to Integument I. Maturing versus Irregular changes A. Impacts of Sunlight on epidermis - DNA harm - keratinocytes sporadic - melanocytes less uniformly disseminated - diminished Langerhans cell number

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Warren (1991) no distinction until after age 45, more wrinkles, less flexibility with > 12 hr/wk for past yr

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B. Daylight consequences for Dermis: - increment number however sporadic elastin filaments (shape/course of action) elastosis - veins diminish

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CLASS ACTIVITY Many tanning salons claim to utilize the longer"safe" wavelengths of UV light (UVA). In view of the slide I will indicate talk about the legitimacy of this claim: 1.List the potential side of impacts of UVA vs,UVB light. 2. Bunches vote as to which is more hazardous.

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UVA ( tanning salon) versus UVB (sunburn) (UVA weaker) more extraordinary smolder additionally infiltrating (more achieves earth) dermis-collagen epidermis blood vessels melanin resistant cataracts,retina

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C. Neoplastic skin conditions 1. Uncontrolled cell generation - considerate or threatening 2. Skin growths: basal cell squamous cell, dangerous melanoma Asymmetry Border Color Diameter

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2. Because of a few elements: - diminished incendiary reaction, melanin, Langerhans, evacuation of hurtful substances, expanded cell inconsistency - these additionally identified with daylight introduction

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D. Other Preventable Aging impacts 1. Impacts of delayed weight (i.e. confined to bed) - Bedsores (decubitus ulcers) diminished blood stream + diminishing of subcutaneous fat

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II. Maturing changes A. Epidermis 1. More porous corneum 2. Keratinocytes more variable - Strength of connection, spacing of keratinocytes - Rate of creation

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3. Melanocytes - uneven dissemination (age spots) - decreased creation of melanin - higher hazard for sunburn and skin cancer because of sun presentation 4. Langerhans cells - numbers , unfavorably susceptible reaction

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5. Hair - follicles - number of follicles dormant stage,thinner, made slower (identified with hormone changes) - air takes, melanin( turning gray not sequential age) - diminished sebum

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6. Nails - in development (half) - diminished blood stream to furthest points (toes) - more defenseless to damage, parasitic diseases, longer to repair

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B. Maturing on Dermis 1. Collagen filaments - diminish in sum - cross-linkages (stiffer, less opposing to pulling strengths) in time cross connections diminish, then expanded skin tears

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2. Elastin strands - less all around archived - thicker,clumped, stiffer - decreased capacity to pull back - some calcification - looser covering that hangs (1,2 because of fibroblast inadequacy)

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3. Resistance decrease - WBC, pole cells, macrophages decay - diminished heparin (less vessel arrangement) 4. Mucopolysaccharides - diminished water authoritative (shape, lessened development of atoms)

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5. Veins - diminish number - expanded thickness of storm cellar film of endothelial cells slower conveyance of supplements, evacuation of squanders, decay of other skin structures skin paleness, thermoregulation

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6. Sweat organs - diminished # eccrine (except in scalp) - lessened limit for sweating - diminish in apocrine emission ( one positive!) 7. Sebaceous organs - no change #, increment in size yet diminish sebum generation

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8. Tactile neurons - no adjustment in torment or touch receptors in hair follicles - other touch/weight receptors - diminished tangible contribution from fingers, hands, ranges with little hair

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Increase Risk of Vit D inadequacy ( Ca2+): Vit D (idle shape) combination in epidermis blood stream to convey cholesterol forerunners capacity to change over (> light for same result) capacity to actuate to calcitriol (kidney) capacity to process drain items open air movement

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C. Maturing of Subcutaneous Layer - ? Free connective tissue - subcutaneous fat, not add up to body fat (hanging, free skin appearance translucent skin appearance)

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Wrinkles, liver spot treatment tretinoin (Retin-An) expanded thickness epidermis expanded turnover stratum corneum diminished #,size melanocytes increment in collagen, elastin dermal vessel expansion relapse precancerous injuries

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RETIN-A: TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE? - redness, peeling, rankling, swelling - expanded sun affectability - 92% of cases skin aggravation - no long haul thinks about bald, pale skinned person mice quickened tumorigenic capability of UV radiation - collaboration with abrasives