The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January

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The Effects of Proposed Instruction Least Administration Guidelines on an Example of Locale in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January 13, 2005. Diagram. "Preview" of Indonesia and Areas "Pre-History" of Decentralization in Indonesia The Time of Decentralization

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´╗┐The Impacts of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards on a Sample of Districts in Indonesia Stephen Dunn January 13, 2005

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Overview "Depiction" of Indonesia and Districts "Pre-History" of Decentralization in Indonesia The Era of Decentralization Motivation for Minimum Service Standards Overview of Proposed Minimum Service Standards Study and Results Conclusions, Issues, Looking Forward

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Snapshot of Indonesia Population 214.5 million (WB, 2003) 14,000 islands 3,000 miles east-to-west 43% urban (WB, 2002) Life hope during childbirth 66.7 Years, (WB, 2002) GDP per capita $971 (WB, 2003) Poverty Headcount Index 16% (WB, 2002)

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Snapshot of Districts 420 Districts District Populations from <25,000 to Over 4 Million Environments from "Metro" to confined, farming Poverty Headcount Index from >90% to <2% (SUSENAS, 2002) Annual Per Capita Own-Source Revenues from almost Rp 1 million to underneath Rp 5,000 (WB, 2001)

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Snapshot of District Education Primary NER: 91% for most minimal pay areas 91% for most elevated pay locale Sen. Sec. NER: 18% for most reduced salary regions 62% for most astounding pay regions (WB, 2002) Per-Student APBD Education Expenditure Range: minimum < Rp 50,000 maximum > Rp 300,000 (writer's information)

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"Pre-History" of Decentralization in Indonesia Prior to 1999 Laws, Highly Centralized Government Low Control of Own-Resources Deconcentrated Sectoral Offices in Districts Limited District Autonomy Little Scope for Local Choice in Service Delivery

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The Era of Decentralization Overview Motivations for Decentralization to District Level Laws 22, 25 of 1999 and "Enormous detonation" in 2001 Assets Transferred to Districts Local Planning and Budgeting New Revenue Streams: DAU and DAK Share of Sub-National Spending Doubled

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The Era of Decentralization Finance and Management of Education oversaw at region and school level DAU is essential wellspring of region assets Education goes after region assets with different segments There are various other subsidizing streams Large measure of region self-governance, rising school self-sufficiency

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Motivation for Education Minimum Service Standards Education is a national concern Desire to expand value crosswise over regions Indonesia has low accomplishment in respect to peers Political-Economic Aspects

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Overview of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards SPM cover: formal instruction (grades 1-12) comparable out-of-school training pre-school sports "youth cooperation"/"social support" custom curriculum educator/school advancement and administration

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Overview of Proposed Education Minimum Service Standards Large number of SPM (297) Some SPM are clashing or inside conflicting "Instruction" SPM cover numerous non-training territories Districts don't gather a great part of the information required

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PERFORM Study Overview Goal: comprehend use ramifications of SPM Team: PERFORM staff, MOF, RTI SPM center: formal instruction (grades 1-12) * Districts: 15 regions from 10 areas * Model: approach alternatives projection show * Results: projections from 2002-2017, "bring down bound"

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PERFORM Study Districts

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PERFORM Study arrangement choices projection display User can set strategy/utilitarian parameters (SPM) and inspect impacts An "imagine a scenario in which?" model to analyze approach impacts Single region center, yield for 15 regions District base information Projections more than 2002-2017 Results for some factors/pointers

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Results Overview Interpretation of Results Total Expenditure by Level Expenditure by Type Enrollment Indicators, Teachers, Classrooms, Books, Teacher and Classroom Upgrading

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Results Expenditure Proposed SPM result in a 54% expansion in region consumption on training by the year 2007 ("lower bound" gauge of SPM effect) Expenditure affect shifts fundamentally crosswise over regions Within regions , use affect fluctuates drastically for various levels of instruction

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Results Expenditure

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Results Total Education Expenditure: Kab. Batang

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Results SD/MI Expenditure: Kab. Batang

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Results SMA/MA Expenditure: Kab. Batang

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Results SD/MI Enrollment: Kab. Batang

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Results SMA/MA Enrollment: Kab. Batang

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Results SD/MI and SMA/MA Teacher Demand: Kab. Batang

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Conclusions If executed, the proposed SPM would bring about huge consumption increments for some areas Achievement of SPM would require generous level-particular activities/changes for each locale Time and in addition cash will be required

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Issues/Questions Are the proposed SPM Affordable? Are the SPM truly "least administration benchmarks"? Ought to all areas be liable to the same SPM? Ought to SPM apply to all of training or to specific viewpoints? Shouldn't something be said about strengthening of schools, school councils, and area instruction sheets? Why are the enlistment SPM not met? How to back SPM? How to consider areas responsible for meeting SPM?

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Looking Forward Before proclamation, more examination: monetary and educationist viewpoints Definition of required capacities inside instruction Tsunami Impacts? center, spending needs, time period