The History and Politics of Cartography

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The History and Politics of Cartography Elizabeth Hollingsworth

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Presentation Outline Introduction to Maps Ancient mapping Regional maps Medieval maps The period of investigation and cartography The Renaissance and mapping World chart books, the illumination, and imperialism Mapping the United States

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What are maps? A type of human correspondence that speak to geology and culture "Guide" originates from the Latin mappa , signifying "material" "Maps are photos of the world that exemplify changes in masterful delineation, logical request, and the way we see and comprehend the land around us. They are material items, social records, and chronicled antiques. The historical backdrop of cartography is an intricate story of changes in creative representation, specialized advance, and social development, all of which bear the sign of monetary and political power" (11, Short).

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Properties of maps: Scale and Projection Scale is the measure of the pressure of a guide. Projection is the representation of the round world on a level surface. All projections are bends. Mercator projection-most well known, utilized as a part of route Other projections: Robinson, Hammer, Goode, and Sinusoidal

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Properties of maps: Orientation The directionality of a guide is its introduction. Advanced introduction puts north at the highest point of the guide and south at the base. This is just a late tradition—introduction is subjective in a circular world. Utilizing north as the chief introduction point if hazardous due to the refinement between "attractive" north and "genuine" north. Introduction mirrors individuals' judgments and viewpoints.

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Properties of maps: Symbols, pictures and plans; the matrix framework Maps can be spoken to by images, pictures or plans. An arrangement of vertical and flat lines help us structure and speak to space in maps. The most widely recognized network is scope (north-south) and longitude (east-west).

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Maps and GPS depends on numerous finding strategies and gadgets utilized as a part of maps (ex. longitude and scope). GPS would have been unimaginable without the advancement of an arrangement of cartography.

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Maps cut on rocks The most punctual maps were cut on rocks and they delineated convictions and customs associated with more extensive cosmologies. The soonest shake maps were most likely made around 40,000 years back amid the upper Paleolithic period.

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Kwazulu-Natal shake etching, southern Africa This shake etching portrays a seeker with a bow and bolt and his prey. Picture from http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tab.html

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The Maps of Hunter-Gatherers These maps had a pragmatic reason: to find rich regions and great chasing districts. These maps additionally had an otherworldly reason: the delineations of creatures and spots were demonstrations of supplication to the divine beings. The maps were drawn on: wood, bark, skins, paddles, kayak seats, garments, wooden plates, trees, and on the body.

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The Agricultural Revolution The move from chasing social event to farming denoted a move in cartography. Maps concentrated on field frameworks and property relations, not on chasing trails and creature propensities. Urban focuses built up: "The sorted out power connected with these various leveled social orders empowered the improvement of frameworks of specialized learning and data recording. The accumulation of information turned into a crucial piece of keeping up social control and political power" (41, Short)

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Ancient guide of the Mesopotamian world from Sippar, Iraq c 700-500 BC This guide is on a stone tablet. Picture from: http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/compass/ixbin/goto?id=enc383%20

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Maps and the Development of Urban Civilization Urban scenes got to be critical political and profound focuses, and were hence thoroughly mapped.

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Map of Tenochtitlan, Codex Mendoza, c. 1541 Image from http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/aztecs/aztecs24.gif

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Maps of South Asia Few South Asian maps date from over 800 years back. Most pre-European maps from South Asia are cosmological maps that portray the universe. A hot, muggy atmosphere makes it hard to protect old maps. A distraction with cosmology added to the shortage of guide making.

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Ancient Greece 600 BC: Much intelligent interest in Greece. Pythagoras, Aristarchus, and Eratosthenes reasoned that we lived in a heliocentric universe with a round earth. Eratosthenes found that the boundary of the earth was 25,000 miles (it is really 24,899 miles).

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Ancient Rome Julius Caesar started an overview of the world to give geopolitical data about the domain. The "Agrippa Map" came about. Antiquated Roman maps were utilized to record landholdings, and were most likely utilized for duty purposes or to help with the portion of the water supply.

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The Peutinger outline. 400 AD This bit of the Peutinger outline parts of the eastern Mediterranean Image from http://www.livius.org/a/1/judaea/peutinger_jud.jpg

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Claudius Ptolemy's Guide to Geography depicted longitude and scope and proposed this matrix framework with degrees and minutes. He likewise sketched out a conic and pseudoconic projection. Picture from http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/Students/pictures/C.Ptolemy.jpg

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Mappaemundi: 13 th - 14 c Europe Maps of the world: Mundus implies world Three sorts: tripartite, zonal, transitional Tripartite: generally normal. These delineate Asia at the top, Africa at the east, and Europe at the West. The world is focused at Jerusalem and there is a division of the world by God to the three children of Noah. Zonal: separated into 5 or 7 atmosphere zones Transitional: more precise, 14 th century

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The psalter outline. 1260 Image from http://puffin.creighton.edu/bucko/addresses/pictures/world.jpg

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Portolan Charts and Atlases These are ocean outlines from the late 12 th century, which grew once sailors began utilizing the compass. These built up the tradition of introduction towards the north. These have a system of lines that compare to purposes of the compass and nautical courses. These were blunder inclined in light of the fact that they didn't consider the arch of the earth.

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Portolan outline from the Vallard Atlas, 1547 Image from http://www.mariner.org/captivepassage/photographs/lg_inln2001-90_nwafrica.jpg

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Islamic Cartography 800-1400 AD: Arabs vanquished a great part of the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, India and Armenia. The domain was a rearing ground for scholarly movement. Cosmological maps were made from the Islamic logical custom, not religious talk. World maps were exceptionally broad and set the Middle East at the inside

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World guide, 1456, by Al-Idrisi This is an extremely geometric representation of the world. It draws on the Ptolemic seeing, in this way joining conventions of the East and the West. Picture from http://www.oldmaps.mu/Maps/Images/Al-IdrisiCircular.jpg

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Maps of China Have been dated as ahead of schedule as 200 BC. Amid the Tang and Song traditions, maps were submitted to the focal powers on a 3 to 5 year premise. In Medieval China, maps were delivered by focal powers for military, political, or regulatory purposes.

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Maps of the Far East Japan: "Gyoki maps" appointed by the legislature. The Japanese made matrix like maps of rice fields as vital records of possession. Korea: Ch'onhado maps with Korea at the focal point of the world. Korea received a more deliberate way to deal with substantial mapping in the late 15the century keeping in mind the end goal to help with resistance.

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Ch'onhado, Korea, mid 18 th century Image from http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/750.jpg

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Maps of Mesoamerica Olmecs, Mixtecs, Toltecs, and Zapotecs Four sorts of maps: earthbound with and without an authentic account, cosmological, and divine. Numerous maps were lost or pulverized amid the Spanish triumph.

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Maps of South America 3 sorts of indigenous mapping: heavenly maps, maps made at the command of Europeans by indigenous individuals, and maps made by Europeans yet affected by nearby originations of space. Numerous maps were snappy outlines in the sand or hand signals noticeable all around.

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Alcama, William Hack, 1685 Image from http://www.nmm.ac.uk/accumulations/pictures/70/F1904.jpg

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Mapping South America The Spanish and Portuguese did a great part of the mapping of South America 1506: the most punctual printed guide of the New World by Giovanni Matteo Contarini 1507: Martin Waldseemullewr spoke to North America as a different landmass There was hardly any mapping of the inside of the mainland until some other time

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Giovanni Contarini's reality delineate, Image from http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/308.html

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Maps of North America Few maps pre-European maps of North America exist. Canadian Inuit maps were engraved onto the ivory tusks of walrus. Local American made maps within birch bark. These helped with route along the conduits.

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Mapping North America North America was mapped by the Italians, Dutch, French, and English. 1612: Map by Samuel de Champlain of France that advanced the possibility of colonization.

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Map of Virginia, John White, c. 1585 Image from http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images1/map_virginia_cr.jpg

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Mapping the Pacific Exploration missions started with Magellan, Francis Drake, and Abel Tasman The British and the French were aggressive over mapping the Pacific in the 18 th and 19 th hundreds of years.

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World guide demonstrating Magellan's voyage, 1544, Battista Agnese Image from http://www.art.com/asp/display_artist-asp/_/crid- - 33047/Battista_Agnese.htm

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The Development of the Sea Atlas Late 16 th century: reasonably evaluated ocean map books were made accessible. 1620: Mariner's Mirror by Lucas Jason Waghenaer was pu

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