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THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM IMPRISONMENT A.J.W. (Tony) Taylor Victoria University of Wellington

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Abstract Purpose of penitentiaries – to change the conduct of the greater part of prisoners through countering or renewal - to hold the resolute minority as per essential standards of human rights - in this way 'Enhancing open security by guaranteeing sentence consistence and decreasing re-irritating through skilled staff and powerful partnerships' (Dept. of Corrections' Strategic Business Plan, 2009) Accountability in the rehabilitative chain

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The topic Those who can't gain from history are bound to rehash it: and the individuals who do, can choose wonderful aides and rules - adjusted from George Santayana

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Outline Unfettered philosophy/regulatory approach v Academic examination Evolution of penitentiaries Excessive hardship intensifying different components Repeated perceptions National and International powers A Penal Commission

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Disputation driven by: Ideological affirmations versus principled responsibility Beliefs and beginning gut responses versus c onsideration of announced criteria Reliance on open uproar versus resolute evaluation of information Assumption that all casualties need retribution all the time versus clinical and overview proof in actuality

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Home Secretary Winston Churchill 'The mind-set and temper of the general population as to the treatment of wrongdoing and offenders is a standout amongst the most unfailing trial of the human advancement of any nation. A quiet and impartial acknowledgment of the rights… .even of the indicted criminal against the State ,... [and] indefatigable [efforts] towards the revelation of healing and regenerative procedures,… check and measure the hid away quality of a country, and are the sign and confirmation of the living uprightness in it' (House of Commons twentieth July 1910)

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Evolution of penitentiaries Caves and cells in pre-Biblical times Monastic chambers AD 1084, & Pope Innocent 1143 - four tenets Fr. Mabillon mid-17 th proposition for common people 1675 Fr. Fillipo connected riules to y.. in Florence Hospice 1704 Pope Clement XI made cell Prison in Rome Elizabethan Bridewells, transportation, America, Australia, Norfolk Island Philadelphia, Auburn, Elmira, Pentonville, New Zealand Modern super-max

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Transportation Anglo-Saxon concentration… ..1615-1785 est. 60,000 to America 1779 masses as organizing posts 'most brutalizing… disheartening, ..appalling', and lethal - Webbs 1788-1850s NSW, Van Diemen's Land, Norfolk Island, WA. est. 16,000 … 'inconvenience of ceaseless oppression and subjection' – Maconnochie… . a living passing.. cf. Henry Garrett (McGill, 2006)

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Pentonville opened 1842 The official report of 1853 recorded 220 instances of madness, 210 of dreams, and 40 suicides in the 60,000 detainees that had entered the place Model for 54 penitentiaries in Britain Staff preparing focus – Col Arthur Hume to NZ 1881 Tyranny of Edmund Du Cane 1869-1896 – denied detainees of rest, made exposed apportions unpalatable, expelled w.c.s from cells, confined good and instructive guideline.

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Excessive hardship Personal and social character, and human rights Isolation Less qualification suggested and affirmed by statute Clothing Food Security Hygiene William Penn, John Howard, Elizabeth Fry, Alexander Maconnochie, Thomas M Osborne, Mary B. Harris, Alexander Paterson

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Repeated perceptions In 1846 Dr Lauvergne (cf. Bourdet-Pléville, 1960, p. 70): in the bagnes in the 1830s: the coarse sustenance, clogging, extremes of warmth and chilly, the barbarous hardness of the watchmen, and the iron burden, transform men who are regularly imbecilic and mild into tigers. It is perilous to abandon them for long stretches in prey to despairing… . From these causes stemmed the assaults of hopelessness which regularly finished in attacks on watchmen or the murder of another convict - both offenses conveying an unpreventable punishment - the guillotine'

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'in the three awesome bagnes of Toulon, Brest and Rochefort… the passing rate [in the period 1822-1837] was grinding away most elevated amid the principal year of imprisonment, was still significant amid the second year, and reduced consistently a short time later; comes about he put down to misery, disheartening and the dread roused by those experiencing the train of life in a bagne surprisingly' – ( Bourdet-Pleville, 1960, pp. 80-81) Dr Chassinat

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Charles Dickens – on the Eastern State Penitentiary Pennsylvania The detainee 'is directed to the phone from which he never again approaches, until his entire term of detainment has lapsed He is a man covered alive; to be uncovered in the moderate round of years; and meanwhile dead to everything except for tormenting nerves and ghastly gloom'

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Prison Chaplain John Graham (1922, p.266) 'The wearing without end of identity is the focal impact of jail life… The nonappearance of all decision, of the need or the chance to decide, brought about truly debilitated self discipline sometimes when the men finally developed. They discovered they couldn't choose anything, notwithstanding when to cross the road. It was some time before they stopped to feel like sheep in a run. The will decayed'.

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Clinicians The Swiss specialist A.L. Vischer (1919) depicted the dormant response to imprisonment among detainees in isolation, and he remembered it again among gatherings of POWs of various nationalities amid World War 1. He called it 'security fencing malady', saying that '[M]ore than whatever else the spiked metal winds like a string through [the] mental procedures'. He connected the condition to the 'entire vulnerability of the length of 'detainment', and to the absence of adequate work to help detainees involve their time (on the same page, p. 31).

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Solitary imprisonment The Webbs (1922) 'the repulsive experience … did not, truth be told, prompt to humility and good recovery, yet [to the] loss of wellbeing, mental sadness,… much madness, rehashed endeavors at suicide and a horrifying passing rate " GBS introduce… .

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Environmental accentuation Prisoners and polar travelers : a man going wild after just two weeks, unwittingly affirmed my desires when he said: 'its difficult to characterize… like being secured a jail. … descended expecting boundless expanses. I get angry and tired… miss the green and the blue something appalling… it makes me miserable… . .. I might want to see some free water and the ocean … there is only interminable white and unending black'.

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Richard Korn (1988) mental and physical state of ladies detainees in super-max had disintegrated to a basic point – prompted to controls being expanded to shield prisoners from each other, staff from them, and open softening up to discharge them.

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Lorna Rhodes (2005) attracted regard for the obsessive capacity of supermax detainment facilities in delivering or compounding dysfunctional behavior. She discovered 20-25% of supermax prisoners demonstrated solid proof of emotional instability. She remarked that such places additionally influence 'the brain research and self-impression of detainees, regardless of whether they can be depicted as rationally sick', and they raise 'more extensive inquiries concerning the bigger or "security" impacts of the US jail complex'. Their 'swarmed condition, terrifying communications with different detainees, and huge numbers of jail guidelines' increase or deliver side effects of tension, fury, separation, and psychosis.

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Who said it and when? administrators and jail draftsmen were arranging and building too much 'solid most extreme security establishments'. Indeed, even around then, they saw that the 'dead hand of the past [demanded] that gigantic heaps of stone cement and steel with all the cutting edge security devices be manufactured despite the fact that… exclusive an exposed twenty for every penny of those sent to jail [required] most extreme security. The craze for security and care [was] costing the citizen a huge number of dollars'.

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Official Inquiries abroad assembling dust 1883-84 New York Board of Charities 1895 Herbert Gladstone Report 1931 Wickersham Report NZ Royal Commissions/Ministerial Commissions of Inquiry, Ombudsman's Reports…

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Official Reports 1940s, Royal Commissions in Britain and Canada recognized mental weakening in detainees yet viewed it as unsuitable In 1943 the International Red Cross Committee (IRCC) perceived the condition in detainees of war while prescribing need in repatriation be given to those 'whose mental and physical condition shows up to be jeopardized by delayed detainment, and to the 'matured detainees who have persevered long detainment'

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Latest definitive evaluations In 2002, the European Parliament made a straightforward judgment of 'the material condition, restricted human contact, and unique conditions that were probably going to worsen the harmful impacts innate in long haul detainment'. In 2005 The WHO Health in Prisons Project additionally noticed that there was 'finished understanding that the general wellbeing significance of detainee wellbeing was unfortunately dismissed all through Europe'

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Conclusion Societies that declare to be more helpful than boorish ought to continually screen their treatment of hostages. New Zealand has effectively done as such as to the care of the rationally sick and youngsters needing consideration and security. It needs to do likewise for crooks in the event that it is appropriately to secure their potential casualty/losses and the citizens. Possibly an autonomous Penal Commission may help Parliament and the nation.