The Discrimination System:

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Heuristic Model of System Analysis. Subsystem A . Subsystem D. Subsystem C. . . . . Subsystem B. . . . . Neighborhood Segregation. School Segregation. Incongruities in Access to Higher Education. Racial Stigma. Work Market Disparities. Inconsistencies in Economic Status. . . . . . . Abberations in Test Performance .

Presentation Transcript

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´╗┐The Discrimination System: Barbara Reskin Department of Sociology University of Washington, Seattle Race and Public Policy January 3, 2004

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Heuristic Model of System Analysis Subsystem B Subsystem D Subsystem A Subsystem C

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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Indices of Black-White Segregation, 2000 Detroit 85 New York 82 Milwaukee 82 Chicago 81 Newark 80 Cleveland 77 Miami 74 Indianapolis 71 Kansas City 69 Los Angeles 66 Atlanta 65 South Africa under politically-sanctioned racial segregation: 92.5

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Neighborhood Segregation Subsystem Housing Market Discrimination Mortgage-Market Discrimination Neighborhood Segregation Location of Public Housing Zoning Decisions Disparate Economic Resources Opposition to Black Neighbors

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Housing Market Discrimination 13% of dark analyzers acting like house purchasers were offered help with home loan loaning, contrasted and 24% of white analyzers. Hispanics who got some information about not publicly broadcast units were 8 rate guides more probable toward be directed toward moderately low-salary neighborhoods than their Anglo partners Blacks were cited higher rents than whites for a similar unit. The Economist, June 1998

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Effects of Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Achievement test scores Exposure to wrongdoing; capture Transportation and other open administrations Neighborhood Segregation Job isolation Racial disgrace Property estimations; group control

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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Trends in School Segregation: Percentage of Students of Color in Predominantly-Minority Elementary and Secondary Schools

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AP Classes by Race In overwhelmingly white rural schools, propelled position courses are all inclusive. In poor and minority neighborhoods, o nly 43 percent of secondary schools o ffer AP classes

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Number of Students per 1000 Who Took AP Exams, by Race, 1984-1997 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997 National Center for Educational Statistics 2000

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Unequal Treatment in the Classroom In an examination in which instructors gave execution criticism to understudies whom they couldn't see, the educators gave less positive input after right reactions, briefer input for slip-ups, and less guiding to understudies whom they accepted to be dark than they accomplished for understudy whom they believed were white. R. Ferguson 1998:294.

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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The Likelihood of Encountering Discrimination When You're Outnumbered If only one white in seven treats African Americans unjustifiably in view of their race, there would be one effectively separating white for each dark individual in America. Fischer et al . 1996:183.

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Stereotype Threat According to an investigation on the execution of white and dark varsity competitors, when the experimenters told the competitors that smaller than normal golf tried athletic capacity , the dark competitors outscored the whites; when they told the competitors that scaled down golf tried athletic insight , the white competitors outscored the blacks. Stone et al. 1999

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College Attendance by Race (1990s) White 45 36 36 Black 36 43 30 Hispanic 35 57 22 % understudies @ junior colleges % understudies @ universities with mean SATs > 1000 % HS graduates in school

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Percentage of Students Earning BAs at Schools with in any event Half Minority Students (1993) Race Percentage Hispanic 34 32 Black Asian 7 Jacobs 1996

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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Family Economics and College Admission Academic Criteria What Money Can Buy Class rank, GPA Tutoring Standardized test scores Prep class up to $1K $60 per shot Personal essay Professional manager Recommendations Professional proofreader Family social ties

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Family Economics and College Admission Nonacademic Criteria What Money Can Buy Musical, athletic "talent" Private lessons, gear "Character" (volunteers) No low maintenance work Extracurricular exercises No low maintenance work Interesting experiences Unpaid internships Travel abroad Campus talk with Travel costs In-state educational cost $3000-$10,000 Donations to foundation 6-figure gifts Legacy status Family individuals graduated class

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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Hiring Discrimination In more than 2,000 reviews, bosses oppressed minorities in the vicinity of 20 and 25 percent of the time Employers favored whites in solicitations to meeting, work offers, pay, work assignments, and data about not widely known open doors Fix, Galster, & Struyk; Kenney & Wissoker, 1994.

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Hiring Discrimination Faxed applications from "candidates" with names like Kristin, Meredith, Brad and Jay to managers that had promoted for section level occupations were 50 percent more inclined to be called by businesses than applications marked by individuals with names like Lakisha, Tamika, Rasheed, and Darnell. Bertrand and Mullainathan 2002

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Unemployment by Race and Sex, 2002 Adult Adult Teens Men Women White 14.1 5.0 4.2 Black 28.2 10.0 8.9 Current Population Survey, 2003

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Labor Force Participation by Sex and Race (in percent) Teens Men Women White 47 60 77 Black 29 64 72 Current Population Survey, 2003

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Occupational Segregation Indices of Occupational Segregation with Same-Sex European-Ancestry Whites African Americans 30-35 Mexican Americans 32-40 Southeast Asians 44-45

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2002 Median Earnings by Race and Sex for Full-Time Year-Round Workers Non-Hispanic white 41,400 30,890 African American 32,257 27,351 Hispanic 26,493 22,192 Men Women U.S. Department of the Census 2003

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Numbers (in 1000s) of Black and White Males Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Jails

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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Hiring Discrimination Milwaukee managers favored white candidates to coordinated dark candidates, and candidates without jail records to candidates with records. Be that as it may, they favored white candidates with a jail record to coordinated dark candidates who had no jail record. Pager, American Journal of Sociology 2003

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Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Access to Higher Education School Segregation Disparities in Criminal Justice Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities in Economic Status

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Disparities in Wealth Middle-class blacks . . . gain seventy pennies for each dollar earned by working class whites, however they have just fifteen pennies for each dollar of riches held by working class whites. Dark Wealth/White Wealth , Melvin Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro

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Black-White School Segregation in the South: Percentage of Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998 40 30 20 10 0 1954 1960 1964 1967 1968 1970 1972 1976 1980 1986 1988 1991 1994 1996 1999 2002 Source: Orfield, 2003.

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EEOC CHARGE HANDLING PROCESS 77,444 cases documented EEOC: no cause 8,248 EEOC dropped 68,000 charges 8248 c ases settled through appeasement 431 f iled in court ca. 338 rejected < 100 go to trial 2040 settled for complainant < 100 s ettled for complainant < 50 win at trial

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Remedies for Discrimination Subsystems Higher Education School Segregation Affirmative activity Brown v. Bd. of Educ . Separation laws, governmental policy regarding minorities in society CETA, JTPA Bussing Criminal Justice Fair Housing Acts Automatic Sentencing Labor Markets Neighborhood Segregation Racial Stigma Minimum wage laws, pay separation Public help Section 8 Housing Economic Standing and Social Status

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