The Design Process-Boundary Conditions Design Fundamentals-AS2566.1 Materials Installation AS 2566.2 Tips, Tricks Trap

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THE DESIGN PROCESS Boundary Conditions. Soils

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Covered FLEXIBLE PIPELINES The Design Process-Boundary Conditions Design Fundamentals-AS2566.1 Materials Installation AS 2566.2 Tips, Tricks & Traps Presented by Geoffrey D Stone C.Eng FIMechE; CP Eng FIEAust RPEQ Principal Blenray Pty Ltd ( Design Detail & Development) geoffrey.stone@yahoo.co.uk 0402 35 2313

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THE DESIGN PROCESS Boundary Conditions Water Table Design Loads Trench & Embankment Fill Superimposed Live Loads Other Superimposed Loads Soils & Soil Data Trench Width & Depth Structural Response to Loading Trench Details Stiffness Thrust Blocks Structural Interfaces

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Soils & Soils Data Native Soil Classify Modulus Bedding Type Embedment Material Compaction Geo-material Water Table Backfill Type Compaction Piles Testing Field Laboratory

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Trench Width & Depth AS 2566.1 Minimum Embedment or Embankment Shape of trench

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Trench Dimensions

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Structural Response to Loading

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Stiffness AS 2566.1 2 year estimations of pipe firmness appropriate for good soils 50 year estimations of pipe solidness ought to be utilized for poor soils, uncontrolled establishments or other higher hazard applications

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Stiffness AS 2566.1

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Thrust Blocks Not required for completely welded frameworks as in ABS, PP, PVC-U, PB or PE Required for elastic ring frameworks as utilized for DICL, MSCL, GRP & PVC-U/O/M Design premise Steady state weight Unsteady state weight spikes Hydrostatic test weight

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Structures Interfaces Differential Settlement Soil swelling Water Retaining Shear Loading Thermal Loading Chaffing Water seal in cement

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Water Table Water hydrostatic level applies stack onto pipe-allude AS2566 Rising water applies uneven load onto pipe and the pipe may clasp or surpass its strain constrain Water may bring about buoyancy of purge pipe and uncommon insertion might be important High water table expands development trouble Safety Dewatering Quality

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Loading Design stacks because of trench & dike fill External hydrostatic burdens Internal weight Superimposed dead loads Superimposed live loads Other unsustained loads

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Design Loads because of Trench & Embankment Fill

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Superimposed Live Loads

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Superimposed Live Loads

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Other Unsustained Loads Earthquake Vibration/Shock Differential Settlement Thermal Strain Subsidence Airport runways Railways Specialist Engineering National Codes Local Conditions Risk Likelihood Consequences Responsibility Safeguarding

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DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS AS2566.1 Buried Flexible Pipelines-Design Hoop Stress Ring Bending Strain Creep Temperature Other Considerations Deflection Strength Internal Pressure Combined Loading Buckling

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Deflection Short term Long term Vertical & Horizontal Considered equivalent Effect of overabundance side compaction Modulus to utilize Acceptance criteria Measurement amid establishment

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Strength Loads cause strain in pipe divider Ring pressure strains << ring twisting strains AS 2566.1 predicts most extreme pliable ring bowing strains A Shape Factor modifies strain values True Ellipse Shape Factor D f =3.0 Δ flat < Δ vertical Shape Factor D f > 3.0

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Internal Pressure Steady State Unsteady State AS 2566.1 Requirements 1.25 AS 2885 Requirement 1.10 Other codes necessities

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Combined Loading Combined outside load and interior weight Re adjusting impact

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Buckling Ovalization Buckling External Pressure No significant soil bolster Timoshenko Substantial soil bolster –I.D. Moore

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Hoop Stress in the divider because of weight Only criteria utilized for pipe class determination Does not consider different anxieties Basis of the Pipe Class System Relaxes with time for thermoplastic pipes Never Constant

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Ring Bending Strain Importance of Strain Comparison of passable strain in materials ABS 1% GRP 0.18 to 0.6 % PE 4.0% PVC-U 1% PVC-M 1% PVC-O 1.3%

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Creep Variation of Properties in Time Long term stacking/Stress unwinding Reverse stacking/Stress greatness Repetitive stacking/Fatigue

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Temperature The outline temperature may shift because of:- Ambient diurnal temperature varieties Flow rate Fluid temperature extend Process conditions Installation surrounding temperature Wall thickness

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Other Considerations Mass of pipe substance Thermal Strain Local clasping Fatigue Pavement settlement Anchor powers Differential Settlement Earthquake Subsidence Testing conditions Corrosion

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Materials Selection Modulus GRP Modulus Thermoplastic Pipes Types Costs Class Characteristics Fittings & Valves

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Materials - Types GRP ABS PE PVC-U, PVC-M, PVC-O DICL MSCL

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Materials Selection Costs - Whole of Life Safety Availability Maintenance Energy Risks Costs - Standards Authority Industry Acts Costs – Supply Pipe Fittings Supports Costs – Installation Standard of exchanges Equipment Jointing Access Testing

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Selection of Pipe Class Soil/Pipe Structure Design Standardization Risk Likelihood Consequences Responsibilit y Design Pressure Steady State Design Pressure Unsteady State Vacuum Conditions Industry Application & Environment

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Typical Material Characteristics

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Fittings & Valves Jointing Gaskets Expansion Bellows Saddles Valves Isolation Check Air discharge Control Valve classes don't meet all pipe classes Injection formed fittings-Size Limitation Manufactured fittings-Larger Sizes Tees Bends

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Modulus-GRP Pipes Manufacturers build up qualities by test & estimation Axial & longitudinal modulus varies Values at different temperatures required for configuration Strain rate changes values Standards, for example, ISO 14692

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Modulus-Thermoplastic Pipes Published figures ordinarily are strain rate at 20 ºC Value controlled by ASTM test Standard pooch bone test example Fixed strain rate Values at different temperatures required for configuration Strain rate changes values

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INSTALLATION Thrust Blocks Hydrostatic Testing Trench Excavation Trench Shields Laying & Jointing Embedment & Compaction

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Trench Excavation Excavator basin width Excavated profundity Soil expulsion, testing and stockpile Shape of trench Pockets for pipeline projections Thrust piece readiness Dewatering Welding machine get to Adjacent funnels

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Trench Shields When to utilize Remove in stages Affect on compaction Geotextile texture Over exhuming Wide trench

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Trench Shields

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Laying and Jointing Wrapped joints-GRP Welded joints-steel Flanges & Mechanical Joints-All Alignment & Bending Adjacent parallel channels Crossing Pipelines Removal of transitory pegs and backings Join on the bank and Lay in trench and join Rubber ring joints PVC-U, PVC-M, PVC-O, GRP, DICL & MSCL Solvent welded joints-ABS, PVC-U & PVC-M Fusion butt weld-PE, PB & PP Electro-combination couplings-PE

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Embedment & Compaction Pipeline Protection Prevention of floatation Compaction trials Compaction controls Deflection controls Gaging Materials Dewatering Bedding Side Support Overlay Migration of fines

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Thrust Blocks

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Hydro-testing Source of test water Disposal of test water Selection of test lengths Owner's witness Records Establish test weight Test standard Prepare test hardware Prepare ITP's Prepare test focuses

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Hydrotest Methods Constant weight test (No water misfortune) –DICL, MSCL, GRP & PVC Constant weight test (water misfortune) – PE, ABS, PP & PB Pressure rot – PE & PB Pressure bounce back DN ≤ DN315 ABS, PB & PE

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Tips, Tricks & Traps Design Installation Testing Product quality Completion In Service spills

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - Design weight may exclude surge Temperature profile not characterized Pipeline course/soils not enough reviewed Consultant expects sub contractual worker or material provider to do the detail configuration Lower pipe class than should be expected indicated Temporary offices not composed

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - Installation Physical harm Solvent harm to inside surface Use of erroneous dissolvable Incorrect slings Foreign matter not expelled from trench Variations from configuration not built Surfaces not cleaned Aged dissolvable concrete Pipe closes sloped Damaged pipe UV debasement

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - Installation Resources Poor trench conditions Poor local Soil properties not measured routinely Inadequate get to Water entrance Cleanliness No detail drawings Insufficient joints for erection Incomplete inclusion in joints Inadequate time for welds or lay ups Differential settlement

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - Testing Records of test not readied Person to witness test not accessible Resources not accessible Water supply Pump Gages Data lumberjack Temperature instrument Trained faculty Lack of arranging & methodology Standard arrangements not comprehended Inexperienced analyzers Test weight obscure Equipment not confined Procedure not concurred in advance

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - Product Quality – Inspection or QA Non conformance with drawings Pipe ovality Lining thickness Socket measurements Surface imperfections Fabricated fittings Cracks at weld Dimensions Orientation

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - Completion Resources & spending Site tidy up Reinstatement Handover to proprietor Records Work as Executed Drawings Quality Assurance Sign-Off Certificate of Practical Completion

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Tips, Tricks & Traps - In Service Leaks & Failures Buckling of thin divider pipe Thrust squares Waterhammer Over weight Pipe shear Fatigue & vibration Pipe burst Flanged joints release Solvent welds release Rubber ring joints spill Fusi

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