The Critical Period: 1781-1787

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The Critical Period: 1781-1787

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Articles of Confederation Unicameral Legislature No official No national legal framework Equal vote per state (yes, bring down case) No armed force, no assessment (just demands) No control trade ��  levy wars Passage of laws requires 9/13 Amendment requires 13/13 GW: ""little more than the shadow without the substance."

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Effects Massive outside obligation and wild expansion Weak, undermanned, underarmed Continental Army ��  dependent on undisciplined, inconsistent, ineffectual state local army Unable to implement Treaty of Paris in West Washington + others (patriots, esp. Cont'l Army officers): persuaded require more grounded focal energy to corral commonplace concerns Shays' Rebellion 1786: no tax assessment w/o representation However: did effectively battle AR; diminished residential obligation (yet expanded universal); kept Union together; Jay-Gardoqui Treaty offered Miss.R to Spain yet opened Spanish provinces for exchange (useful for NE, terrible S and W)

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Compromises with Death: The US Constitution

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"A Bundle of Compromises" A. Plans

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B. 6 Basic Principles 1. Well known sway: control from the general population 2. Restricted government: Constitution most elevated tradition that must be adhered to 3. Partition of forces: gap control w/in Federal government (not total) Legislative: Congress Executive: President Judicial: Supreme Court 4. Governing rules: contain oppression 5. Legal audit: authorization of Constitution 6. Federalism: partition control State and Federal

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C. Prelude of the Constitution We the People of the United States, in Order to frame a more flawless Union, build up Justice, guarantee household Tranquility, accommodate the normal resistance, advance the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do appoint and set up this Constitution for the United States of America.

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D. Structure Art 1: Legislature Section 8: powers allowed ( 1-8-18 : Necessary and Proper); Section 9: powers denied; Section 10: powers denied to the States Art 2: Executive Commander-in-boss Art 3: Judiciary Supreme Court and purview Art 4: Relations with the States Guarantee "republican government"; full confidence and credit and benefits and insusceptibilities ��  national citizenship Art 5: Amendment handle Art 6: Debts, Supremacy Clause, no religious test Art 7: Ratification (9/13)

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II. Bargains with Death William Lloyd Garrison + radical abolitionists Necessity: no bondage, no Constitution

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A. 3/5 Compromise South: check slaves for representation North: they can't vote, so they shouldn't tally Compromise: consider slaves 3/5 for populace, additionally for assessments (they need to pay for it) Effect: South overwhelms House of years, effect on Electoral College ��  southerners rule Presidency Jefferson: "Negro President"��  just wins 1800 race due to unbalanced numbers as a consequence of 3/5 Other hand: why not 5/5? Ladies, Indians, non-national settlers in N (developing #) couldn't vote either; South lost voting power

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1-2-3: "Delegates and direct Taxes might be allocated among the few States which might be incorporated inside this Union, as indicated by their individual Numbers, which should be controlled by adding to the entire Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for Term of Years and barring Indians not burdened, three fifths of every single other Person."

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B. Business Clause North: focal government must manage interstate exchange (real issue AofC) South: can't direct importation of slaves until 1808 1-9-1: "The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing should think appropriate to concede, might not be restricted by the Congress before the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, yet a Tax or obligation might be forced on such Importation, not surpassing ten dollars for every Person."

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C. Runaway Slaves South: must have the capacity to recover runaways North: would prefer not to be ethically ensnared in returning slaves Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin South (esp. S. Carolina undermines severance if excluded) 3-2-3: "No Person held to Service in Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, getting away into another, should, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation in that, be released from Service or Labor, however might be conveyed up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor might be expected."