The Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science

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The Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science Peter Harrison

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The Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science Allegory and the 'Two Books' Allegory in Practice Reforming the Reading of Scripture Reinterpreting the Book of Nature

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For the imperceptible things of him from the formation of the world are obviously observed, being comprehended by the things that are made. Romans 1:20

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I imagine that He who made all things in intelligence so made every one of the types of obvious things upon the earth, that He set in some of them some instructing and learning of things undetectable and brilliant, whereby the human personality may mount to profound comprehension and look for the grounds of things in paradise. Critique on the Song of Songs Origen ( c 185-c 254)

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What man of insight will trust that the first and the second and third day and the night and the morning existed without the sun and moon and stars… . One should subsequently record the importance of the sacrosanct works in a three-overlap way… . De Principiis Origen ( c 185-c 254)

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Augustine (354-430)

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Levels of Interpretation Literal Allegorical OBJECT WORD OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT

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Levels of Interpretation Literal Allegorical OBJECT WORD OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT

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'Book of Scripture' 'Book of Nature' Literal Allegorical OBJECT WORD OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT

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'The writer of Holy Writ is God, in whose power it is to connote His significance, not by words just … but rather likewise by things themselves… . The variety of these faculties does not deliver quibble or some other sort of assortment, seeing that these faculties are not duplicated in light of the fact that single word implies a few things, but rather in light of the fact that the things meant by the words can act naturally sorts of different things.' Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae 1a. 1, 10

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F or the entire sensible world resemble a sort of book composed by the finger of God—that is, made by awesome power—and every specific animal is to some degree like a figure, not designed by human choice, but rather founded by the perfect will to show the imperceptible things of God's insight. Hugh of St Victor (d.1142) De tribus diebus

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" T he animal of the world resemble a book in which the inventive Trinity is reflected, spoken to, and composed'. Bonaventure, Breviloquium II.12. Bonaventure (1217-74)

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The Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science Allegory and the 'Two Books' Allegory in Practice Reforming the Reading of Scripture Reinterpreting the Book of Nature

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The Quadriga : Four-overlay elucidation Literal Sense - authentic or syntactic importance Tropological Sense - the ethical utilization of the account Anagogical Sense - the otherworldly or religious significance Allegorical Sense - the importance of the articles alluded to by the strict words

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The Quadriga : Four-overlap translation Literal Sense - recorded or linguistic significance Tropological Sense - the ethical use of the story Anagogical Sense - the profound or philosophical importance Allegorical Sense - the importance of the items alluded to by the exacting words

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Medieval Bestiary

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Adoro Te Devote Pie Pellicane, Jesu Domine, Me immundum munda Tuo cheery Loving Pelican, Oh Jesus Lord Unclean am I however rinse me in Thy blood. Thomas Aquinas

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Literal Allegorical OBJECT WORD OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT

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Literal Allegorical OBJECT Christ WORD OBJECT OBJECT "Pelican" Pelican Egypt OBJECT The World

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The Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science Allegory and the 'Two Books' Allegory in Practice Reforming the Reading of Scripture Reinterpreting the Book of Nature

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'[The strict sense] is the most noteworthy, best, most grounded, in short the entire substance, nature and establishment of the heavenly sacred writing.' Luther, Answer to the Hyperchristian Book , Works 39, 177.

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Scripture, they say, is ripe and consequently bears different implications… But I deny that its fruitfulness comprises in the different implications which anybody may secure to it at his pleasure. Tell us, then, that the genuine importance of Scripture is the characteristic and basic one… . John Calvin, Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles.

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Book of Scripture Book of Nature Literal Allegorical OBJECT WORD OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT

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Book of Scripture Book of Nature Literal Allegorical OBJECT WORD OBJECT OBJECT OBJECT ?

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'Sacred text with no gleams is the sun and the entire light from which all educators get their light, and not the other way around .' Luther, Answer to a Hyperchristian Book . Glossa ordinaria (Venice, 1484)

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The Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science Allegory and the 'Two Books' Allegory in Practice Reforming the Reading of Scripture Reinterpreting the Book of Nature

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'[There are] two books or volumes to think about, on the off chance that we will be secured from blunder; first the sacred texts, uncovering the will of God, and afterward the animals communicating his energy; whereof the last is a key unto the previous.' Advancement of Learning I.vi.16. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

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'Logic is composed in this fabulous book, the universe, which stands ceaselessly open to our look. Be that as it may, the book can't be comprehended unless one first figures out how to fathom the dialect and read the letters in which it is made. It is composed in the dialect of arithmetic, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures without which it is humanly difficult to comprehend a solitary expression of it.' Galileo Galilei The Assayer

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'… for as (such is God's haughtiness to human shortcoming) the greater part of the writings, to whose piece physiology is essential, might be explained by the information of the outer, or if nothing else all the more effectively watched characteristics of the animals; in this way, there are jumpers not to be completely comprehended without the help of additionally infiltrating indagations of the abstrusities of nature, and the more unobvious properties of things, a savvy and philosophical peruser will promptly recognize.' Robert Boyle (1627-1691) Usefulness of Natural Philosophy

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'[We have] entirely discarded what we find in different writers concerning homonymous and synonymous words, or the jumpers names of feathered creatures, hieroglyphics, symbols, ethics, tales, augurs, or should else relating to godlikeness, morals, sentence structure, or any kind of accommodating learning.' Ray and Willughby, Ornithology (1678) John Ray (1627-1705)

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'Fundamental for all divines and understudies on the grounds that the tale of each brute is enhanced with portrayals out of sacred texts, fathers, phylosophers, doctors, and artists: wherein are proclaimed jumpers hyeroglyphicks, images, mottos, and other great histories. Edward Topsell (1607, 1653).

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"Lamia" Do not all charms fly At the negligible touch of icy theory? There was a dreadful rainbow once in paradise: We know her woof, her surface; she is given In the dull index of regular things. Reasoning will take away an Angel's freedom, Conquer all puzzles by govern and line, Empty the spooky air, and gnomed mine - Unweave a rainbow, as it erewhile made The delicate person'd Lamia dissolve into a shade. John Keats (1795-1821)

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Lamia from Topsell, Historie of Foure-Footed Beastes (1607)

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