The Age of Ideologies in Europe 1815-1871

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The Age of Ideologies in Europe (1815-1871)

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I. Europe After Napoleon Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Almost every state in Europe sent an agent. Driving political figures from the four forces accumulated in Vienna to choose the destiny of Europe. - Austria – Clemens von Metternich -Russia – Czar Alexander I -Great Britain – Lord Robert Castelreagh -Prussia – Prince Karl Hardenburg

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I. Europe After Napoleon Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Most of Europe's pioneers planned to invalidate progressive and Napoleonic changes and reestablish the old request (pre-1789). - Restored the first rulers in Spain and the Italian states. - Poland stayed in the Russian Empire/a concession for Russia's part in crushing Napoleon

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I. Europe After Napoleon The Congress needed to accomplish after war soundness by setting up secure states with ensured fringes. - France was come back to its 1790 outskirts -The Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands, both attached by France, were joined under the new kingdom of the Netherlands. - Prussia picked up region in Saxony -Austria recaptured its Italian territories of Lombardy and Venetia -The German Confederation was made to supplant the Holy Roman Empire which was disassembled

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I. Europe After Napoleon France's illustrative, Charles Talleyrand could persuade the Congress that France ought to remain a solid, regarded nation. The managing rule of global relations at the Congress of Vienna was adjust of force . Russian Czar Alexander I proposed a "Blessed Alliance" of Christian countries against progressive changes anyplace in Europe. - Austria & Prussia concurred, Britain didn't. - Britain needed to claim all authority to act as per its interests, not anybody else's. The choices made at Vienna guaranteed peace in Europe until 1850 and no significant wars until World War I (1914).

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II. Belief systems an orderly collection of ideas particularly about human life or culture. Common convictions Conservatism, Liberalism, Republicanism, Socialism, Communism

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II. Philosophies: Conservatism A craving to come back to the conditions and social request that existed in Europe before the French Revolution Rejected the French Revolution as a calamity and Napoleon as a dictator. The Enlightenment, and its accentuation on immaculate reason, was rejected. A steady society ought to be founded on the congregation, the state and the family. Confidence, history and convention ought to supplant reason and intemperate faith in individual rights. Change, in the event that it comes, must be progressive and must consider the nation's history and customs.

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II. Belief systems: Conservatism Political: Called for the arrival of genetic government wherever it was toppled. Sacred government prompts to confusion Democracy, suffrage, were rejected. Political choices should be made by the ruler and his nearest consultants.

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II. Philosophies: Conservatism Social: Called for an arrival of a social request with strict class divisions/a framework in view of a chain of importance like the 3 bequests in pre-progressive France Respect for rank and status must be re-built up.

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II. Philosophies: Conservatism Economic: Initially, most moderates rejected the Industrial Revolution on the grounds that: -they supported conventional social orders in light of agrarian generation -Industrialization reinforced the bourgeoisie and debilitated the landed honorability -the bourgeoisie claimed the method for creation (work, capital, banks, railways, processing plants)

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II. Belief systems: Conservatism Religious: Favored a built up, official and effective church: Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox. The French progressive's radical translation of the Enlightenment prompted to the savagery against the Catholic Church

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Conservative Thinkers: Edmund Burke Edmund Burke (1729-1797) British lawmaker, essayist who denounced the brutality and misuse of the French Revolution Wrote "Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790)

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II. Belief systems: Liberalism Liberals were motivated by the Enlightenment and the direct picks up of the French Revolution. Liberals were generally from the working class/"middle class progressivism"

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II. Belief systems: Liberalism Political: Favored governments in light of composed constitutions and partition of forces Supported either Republican government or protected government -Rulers ought to be chosen by the general population/ought to administer in light of a legitimate concern for the general population Opposed total government from the get go, supported just male property proprietors or "men with cash" having the privilege to vote. Towards the end of the 19 th C. they bolstered widespread male suffrage.

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II. Philosophies: Liberalism Social: Defended the normal privileges of people to freedom, uniformity, and property. Government's part is constrained to ensuring fundamental rights, for example, opportunity of thought, discourse, and religion. Guys ought to be equivalent under the law. Genetic benefits (with the exception of property) ought to be wiped out.

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II. Philosophies: Liberalism Economic: Welcomed the Industrial Revolution -Liberalism was a "middle class" philosophy and the Industrial Revolution profited as a matter of first importance the bourgeoisie. Upheld "free enterprise financial matters/negligible government direction of the economy -Strong confidence in "free market private enterprise" -Their thoughts of private responsibility for method for creation and expanding benefits clashed with communists who felt that laborers ought to control the method for generation and benefits ought to be all the more impartially appropriated -Adam Smith – The Wealth of Nations (1776) –"from the experience of any age and countries, I trust, that the work done by free men comes less expensive at last than that performed by slaves."

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II. Belief systems: Liberalism Religion: Believed in division of chapel and state Opposed the foundation of an "official" church. Opportunity and equivalent status for religions.

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II. Belief systems: Nationalism Loyalty and dedication to one's country or nation, particularly as above unwaveringness to different gatherings or to individual interests. Shared religion — alongside basic ethnicity, political legacy, and history — are elements that attract individuals together patriot developments. The longing for national autonomy in a nation under outside control. Early patriotism in Europe was fixing to progressivism. Patriotism prompted to: -unification of Italy & Germany (1860-1871) -the breaking down of the Ottoman Empire (1804-1918) -the foundation of the "Double Monarchy" (Austro-Hungarian Empire - 1867) -strife between European countries that prompted to World War I Extreme patriotism = FASCISM – Nazi Germany

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III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives versus Liberals Most of the political turmoil of the nineteenth century was a battle between liberals who needed to save and spread the additions of the French Revolution and traditionalists who needed to come back to the old, pre-1789 request. Patriots and liberals consolidated to battle for the autonomy of their nations from outside run the show. Communists joined the political battles against both liberals and preservationists in 1848 to battle for financial equity and the privileges of the regular workers.

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III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives versus Liberals Revolutions of 1830: France Louis XVIII issued a constitution upon his arrival after Napoleon's relinquishment – Charter of French Liberties. His sibling, Charles X (1824-1830) rejected the Charter, suspended parliament, constrained the privilege to vote and confined the squeeze Liberals and radicals rampaged to exhibit against Charles X. /When savagery broke out, Charles X fled to England. Radicals needed a Republic/Liberals favored a protected government. - Louis Philippe was picked as a bargain lord. He was from the decision family (Bourbon) however was a supporter of the French Revolution up until 1792. Under Louis Philippe, the upper bourgeoisie profited (like in first unrest up until 1792) -rich guys were given the privilege to vote yet a great many people still couldn't vote or keep running for office/170,000 out of 3o million individuals could vote – 5-6% of the pop.

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III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives versus Liberals Les Miserables, the play in light of Victor Hugo's book, is set in Paris amid the Revolution of 1830.

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III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives versus Liberals Revolutions of 1848 – "The year of Revolution." France Louis Philippe's legislature turned out to be progressively degenerate. French liberals decried Louis' administration/called for broadened suffrage. French radicals needed the end of government and another republic. French communists required a conclusion to private property and "national workshops". The economy was in a retreat. Government tries to avoid open gatherings and quiet faultfinders.

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III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives versus Liberals Royal troops conflicted with demonstrators in Paris. Individuals were murdered. Louis Philippe resigns the tossed and escapes to England. The liberal, radical and communist pioneers of the revolt declared the Second Republic (First – 1792-1804) Liberals conflicted with communists. Star communist laborers rampaged in Paris against the liberal government. The liberals, upheld by the armed force and laborers, slaughtered 1,500 dissenters. - subsequently, significant threat between the common laborers and the bourgeoisie.

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III. Political Upheavals: Conservatives versus Liberals Newly shaped National Assembly made a constitution that accommodated a solid president and a lawmaking body. - Gave the privilege to v