Techniques and Results Section

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Today\'s Agenda. Observational Study worksheet, information diagram, and synopsis due todayReturn CritiquesQuick ReviewObservational Group Assignment Q

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Techniques and Results Section Psyc 301 Week 3

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Today's Agenda Observational Study worksheet, information diagram, and rundown due today Return Critiques Quick Review Observational Group Assignment Q&A Methods & Results Writing Workshop

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A little fun with research words: What is between rater unwavering quality? What is a reliant variable? What is a free factor? Operationally characterize response time. What is an observational review? A few elements (Intervention, w/o intercession) What is the distinction between an observational review and a genuine analysis?

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Observational Study Results Please break into your gatherings from a week ago. We'll share what we did and have an open door for others to make inquiries.

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Observational Study Concept you took a gander at HOW Variables/times/area What astonished you? Stories from the field

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Method & Results: Recipe Method What went in it? (Members & Materials) How did you assemble it? (method) Results How did it turn out?

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APA STYLE: Method Key Points Blueprint for perusers to assess the review Allows peruser to rationally stroll through the review "Fittingly enlightening yet not all that thorough that it brings about an excessively nitty gritty passage" (Dunn, 2004)

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APA STYLE: Method Subsections: Participants Materials Design just now and again Procedure

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What is incorporated into the Methods segment? Members – who? Likewise, where? Depicts members in the review Total # of subjects and the number in every class. Significant statistic attributes, for example, sex, age, race/ethnicity, and so forth. Try not to give data that would empower others to distinguish the members (e.g., names, references to GMU) in light of the fact that you have to look after classification. Keep in mind: the 2 C's: C ompensation and C onfidentiality Brief Example (Dunn, 2004): Participants Fifty-six men, 51 ladies, and 1 respondent who did not demonstrate his or her sex took part in the analysis for credit toward a course prerequisite.

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What is incorporated into the Methods Section? (cont'd) Apparatus or Materials – what? List any extraordinary research center gear utilized particular surveys, outlines, machines, different supplies arranged/utilized for information accumulation Manufacturer names and models ought to be accommodated machines If any of the materials specifically identify with one of the ideas, say so e.g., you may have utilized a poll keeping in mind the end goal to evaluate your members' level of joy What are the materials in your observational review?

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Materials/Apparatus Example (Dunn, 2004) Stimuli and Apparatus Digital sound recordings were made in a substantial IAC sound-constricting stall by method for a SHURE 5155D mouthpiece in the corner, which was connected to a Denon PMA-680R stereo intensifier and Radius 81/110 PC with SoundScope programming (GW Instruments, Inc., Somerville, MA). Test sessions were recorded to guarantee that newborn children's state of mind was equivalent crosswise over sessions) to block maternal vocal changes emerging from babies' disposition change).

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What is incorporated into the Methods Section? (cont'd) Procedure – how? What occurred from start to finish? Well ordered/sequential portrayal of the review General depiction of exploratory plan and errands How members were doled out to conditions Instructions given to members Description of all the autonomous and ward factors Operational definitions Ways frustrating factors were controlled for (dependability and legitimacy too) Address questioning techniques and moral worries In Dunn, 2004: Refer to Table 5.1 on pg. 94

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Example (Dunn, 2004) Procedure and Apparatus Each trial comprised of the accompanying succession of occasions. Initial, a focal obsession dab showed up for 250 ms. After a 250-ms interim, a preparing jolt (an upright or transformed letter, or a variety of arbitrary spots) showed up for a variable length, took after promptly by the test show, which remained on until the member reacted As rapidly and as precisely as could be allowed, the member made same/distinctive judgment about the two test figures by squeezing one of two keys. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded by the PC. Criticism around a wrong repsone was given by a sound-related tone introduced when the member reacted. Trials on which the reaction was inaccurate were rehashed toward the finish of the piece.

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Results Section: What does it let us know? Presents explore discoveries Statistical Analyses of the review information Tells peruser "What happened" as far as examining the speculation Were the theories affirmed or rejected? Comes about clarified: Verbally - clarify measurements in words Statistically - test insights Numerically - contrasting midpoints Only report the outcomes and don't talk about the information Discussing the information is for the Discussion segment

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Results Section: Writing about insights Restate the speculation State the Purpose of the investigation ID the elucidating measurement to be utilized to compress the outcomes (I.e., Pearson Correlation) Present a synopsis of this expressive measurement crosswise over conditions in the content itself , in a table, or in a figure (call attention to the significant discoveries on which the peruser ought to center) Numbers are most plainly displayed in enclosures. Illustration: More people sat on the correct side of the seat (20) than on the left (10) or in the center (5). Express the conclusion that takes after from each test, yet don't talk about suggestions (these have a place in the Discussion segment).

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Example of Methods & Results Section from a paper written in APA style* *note: While as per the APA, there is one right approach to compose the M&R, you will see that diary articles have a tendency to change in the introduction of the M&R.

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Methods Participants ______________________________ Materials ______________________________ Procedure ______________________________ Results ____________________________ ________________________________

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A couple of updates… This time, you won't hand over crude information, yet the techniques and aftereffects of the information Double-space Put subheadings in italics APA Style - Use Dunn (particularly pages 92-98) and APA Manual (esp. pgs 17-26) as a source of perspective

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A couple words about dialect… This is a formal, "look into" dialect, and along these lines you ought to keep away from: Colloquialisms (I.e., "going to" and "put to bed with a shovel") Overuse of the words, "we" or "I" (just utilize if vital) Contractions Spelling and syntax botches

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Writing Voice Passive versus Active voice: Passive voice - gives an impression of instability Ex) The members were haphazardly relegated to one of three test bunches. Maintain a strategic distance from past tense content (were, was) Active voice - confident Ex) The exploratory technique required the irregular task of members to one of three test bunches

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A couple words about numbers… Use your books to decide when to explain things (numbers, and so forth.) and when to shorten. The general run for numbers is to explain the numbers zero to nine Numerals for numbers 10 or more Decimals ought to stretch out to no more distant than the hundredths place (e.g., 7.10, 4.94) Do exclude decimals if there are none (e.g., "7" instead of "7.00") Never start a sentence with a numeral Use M= for mean, Mdn= for middle, N= for your aggregate number of members

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Some Writing Suggestions Clutter - expel it, sentences ought to be compact and clear Clutter causes perplexity, vulnerability Ex) Is it clear to somebody who is happening upon the subject surprisingly? Decreased: Is it clear to somebody experiencing the subject interestingly

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Some More Writing Suggestions Avoid "Journalese" "shooting a note" - how does a note fire? "humming sections" - what makes a piece buzz? "New York's finest" - antique

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Refer to: Dunn 2004 book: General depiction: p. 92 - 98 Example paper: p. 108 - 110 APA Publication Manual: pg. 17 - 26 APA style freebees (structure)

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For next class… Write up Methods and Results segments for your observational review. Print out and deliver last grade criteria for observational sheet stapled to your task This layouts the primary segments that you will be evaluated on Located on course site Total esteem: 15 focuses Grammar and spelling check (Proofread!) Remember… this is a class about APA style

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In-class activity Method and Results rehearse Hand in toward the finish of class for support focuses Due one Week from now: Written strategies and results areas of your OWN observational review This is a free composition task