Talk Book II

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´╗┐Talk Book II The Nature of Invention

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Book One General Outline Ch 1 Rhetoric opposite Dialectic Ch 2 Rhetoric Defined Ch 3 Three Species of Rhetoric (deliberative, legal, epideictic) Ch 4 Deliberative Rhetoric: Political Topics Ch 5 Deliberative Rhetoric: Ethical Topics Ch 6 Deliberative Rhetoric: Ethical Topics(cont'd) Ch 7 Deliberative Rhetoric : The Greater Good

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Book One General Outline Ch 8 Deliberative Rhetoric: Topics on Political Constitutions Ch 9 Epideictic Rhetoric & Amplification Ch 10 Judicial Rhetoric: Topics on Wrongs and their Causes Ch 11 Judicial Rhetoric: Topics on Pleasure Ch 12 Judicial Rhetoric: Topics on Wrongdoers and the Wronged Ch 13 Judicial Rhetoric: Topics on Justice and Injustice Ch 14 Judicial Rhetoric: The Greater Wrong Ch 15 Judicial Rhetoric: Nonartistic Means of Persuasion

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Book I in survey Recall that in Book I Aristotle distinguishes three method for influence (pisteis) that a rhetor must remember while tending to a crowd of people: ETHOS: that which is determined when the speaker's character is introduced in an ideal light. Feeling: which is gotten from arousing feeling in a group of people. LOGOS: that which is gotten from the rationale of the speaker's contention.

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Book II General Outline Ch 1 Character and Emotion in Persuasion Ch 2 Arousing Emotion: Anger and Calmness Ch 3 Arousing Emotion: Anger and Calmness (cont'd) Ch 4 Arousing Emotion: Friendliness and Enmity Ch 5 Arousing Emotion: Fear and Confidence Ch 6 Arousing Emotion: Shame and Shamelessness Ch 7 Arousing Emotion: Kindliness and Unkindliness

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Book II General Outline Ch 8 Arousing Emotion: Pity and Indignation Ch 9 Arousing Emotion: Pity and Indignation (cont'd) Ch 10 Arousing Emotion: Envy and Emulation Ch 11 Arousing Emotion: Envy and Emulation (cont'd) Ch 12 Adapting Ethos to Audience: The Young Ch 13 Adapting Ethos to Audience: The Old Ch 14 Adapting Ethos to Audience: Those in Their Prime

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Book II General Outline Ch 15 Adapting Ethos to Audience: The Well Born Ch 16 Adapting Ethos to Audience: The Wealthy Ch 17 Adapting Ethos to Audience: The Powerful Ch 18 Logical Argument: Introduction Ch 19 Logical Argument: Common points: Possible/Impossible; Past Fact/Future Fact; Degree Ch 20 Logical Argument: From Example

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Book II General Outline Ch 21 Logical Argument: Maxims Ch 22 Logical Argument: Enthymemes Ch 23 Logical Argument: 28 Common Topics & Strategies Ch 24 Logical Argument: Fallacious Enthymemes Ch 25 Logical Argument: Refutation of Enthymemes Ch 26 Logical Argument: Non-Topics: Amplification, Refutation, Objection

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Book II Overview In Book II Aristotle really expounds on each of these method for influence. It is intriguing to note that Aristotle understands that the normal individual more often than not isn't induced by contentions alone. It is hence that the rhetor needs a firm comprehension of how to utilize his own character and the feelings of the gathering of people as method for influence also.

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Chapter One Ethical and Pathetic Proofs General Discussion of Ethos Object of Rhetoric is Judgment Speaker's character critical for deliberative speech

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Chapter One Judge's outlook more vital for criminological rhetoric Three qualities important to deliver conviction: great sense prudence cooperative attitude Definition of feelings The feelings are each one of those affections which make men change their sentiment with respect to their judgments, and are joined by joy and torment.

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Book II Chapters Two - Eleven Pathos Introduction "Emotions in Aristotle's sense are mind-sets, transitory perspectives - not characteristics of character or common yearnings - and emerge in extensive part from impression of what is freely due to or from oneself at a given time. In that capacity, they impact judgments" (Kennedy 124). The smart speaker, along these lines, can change the mental condition of individuals from his group of onlookers by stirring particular feelings in them, and, in this way impact their judgments.

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Pathos Aims of Rhetor in Arousing Emotions The point of the rhetor, as indicated by Aristotle, is to stimulated these feeling in a group of people with a specific end goal to viably secure the judgment that he wants from them and to have the capacity to excite contrary feelings (e.g., indecency, hatred, and envy) against one's adversaries.

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Pathos What we have to think about the feeling with a specific end goal to induce (2.1): the nature (definition) of the specific feeling what is the perspective of the individual who feels the feeling? the question of the feeling towards whom or what is the feeling felt? reason for the feeling why is the feeling felt and in what conditions is it felt?

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Chapter Two Catalog of Ethical/Pathetic Proofs Anger and Mildness Analysis of Anger Definition Slights Dispositions of those energized to outrage Objects of outrage

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Chapter Two Anger definition: powerful urge for requital brought about by the belittlement of ourselves or those we adore. This deprecate must be uncalled for (e.g., undeserved) protest = felt towards that specific individual (or gathering) that has brought about us hurt cause = some indication of belittlement - e.g.: hatred: felt towards the individuals who are seen as irrelevant. demonstrate hatred for: includes frustrating another's desires, not to get something for oneself but rather to keep him from having it. affront: includes saying or getting things done to sham one's casualty not due to anything he may have done to you, however just for the joy included .

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Chapter Three Calmness definition: the settling down and calming of outrage. In this manner, quiet is the inverse condition of outrage. protest = felt towards the individuals who don't put down us (i.e., who regard us) or who have done as such automatically or who are sad for what they have done, and so on cause = when we feel prosperous, effective, fulfilled, free from agony when our outrage has cooled or has been spent (i.e., coordinated somewhere else) when the wrongdoer has been rebuffed (or has satisfactorily endured) or when we feel that we are meriting belittlement

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Chapter Four Friendly Feeling definition: wishing some useful for the other, not for one's own particular purpose, but rather for his question: felt towards the individuals who enjoy our pleasure/torment in our torment or who adore/abhor similar individuals we do or who show cooperative attitude towards us (by means of liberality/insurance, and so on) or who are great individuals, charming to be with the individuals who resemble us/have similar interests cause: when alternate has wished our useful for our own purpose

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Chapter Five Fear and Confidence Fear definition: torment cause by the desire of some future underhandedness. Take note of: This malevolent something that has the likelihood to bring about extraordinary mischief/agony, and which is seen as being not far-removed Object felt from being helpless before other or towards the individuals who have been off-base and may need vindicate or towards adversaries, spooks or when one has no wellspring of cause: desire of misery

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Chapter Six Shame definition : torment concerning a class of disasters, past, present or future, that appears to being a man into lack of regard. Includes the likelihood of disrespect or loss of regard realized to oneself or friends and family. protest : felt towards those whose we appreciate or who respect us or who we wish to appreciate us or those against whom we are in rivalry or those the individuals who are not slanted towards same indecencies we are or those prone to babble bring about: disrespect delivered by bad habit (weakness, foul play, sexual exorbitance) having not achieved ones' legitimate status in the public eye (particularly in view of ones claim blame) having endured unwillingly something disgraceful (physical/sexual mishandle)

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Chapter Eight Pity definition: torment over wickedness brought on to somebody who does not merit it. Pity is not felt by: the individuals who are totally destroyed or who feel totally immune to fiendish (i.e., they are not ready to identify) Pity is felt by: the individuals who have encounter comparable shades of malice in the past and have gotten away or by the elderly (whose educational experience makes them more thoughtful) or by the individuals who can picture a similar torment brought about to themselves or to friends and family

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Chapter Eight Pity question: felt towards those whom we know, yet who are not firmly identified with us (or we would encounter fear instead of pity) the individuals who resemble us somehow (age, character, social standing, and so forth) the individuals who can adequately (inwardly/significantly) exhibit or convey the completely degree of their torment or enduring cause: disasters that cause obliteration (passing, damage, ailment, maturity, starvation) indecencies cause by possibility (forlornness, distortion, shortcoming) wrongs originating from what ought to be a wellspring of good (family, companions)

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Chapter Nine Indignation definition: torment at underserved favorable luck [the inverse of pity]. protest: not felt towards the individuals who are seen as great/commendable felt towards recently rich/effective (Aristotle's vainglory?) or who are illsuited for the merchandise they have (the Beverly Hillbillies) cause: the simply/goal-oriented people impression of another undeserved achievement

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Chapter Eleven Jealousy definition: torment brought on by the favorable luck of those like ourselves, since we need what they have for ourselves. versus begrudge: torment created by the favorable luck of those like ourselves, not on account of we need what they have, but rather essentially in light of the fact that we loathe them having it (c.f., 2.10) Therefore desire is sensible and positive (since it helps us to enhance ourselves), while envy is frequently unreasonable and negative (since it is grounded in unadulterated disdain)

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Chapter Eleven protest: felt towards the individuals who po