Synchrotron Radiation: A Future Retrospective

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Synchrotron Radiation: A Future Retrospective Symposium in Honor of Iran Thomas May 2003 Sunil K.Sinha UCSD/LANL

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Where were we in 2003? More than 8000 clients at 4 DOE Light Sources

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Methods of getting structures with X-Rays Scattering- - bar can be extensive, however measures spatially and time-arrived at the midpoint of depictions of F.T. of quick relationships ( no stage data) EXAFS/NEXAFS/DAFS ( neighborhood arrange)

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Protein Crystallography

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Previous and Current Accomplishments Structure of Physisorbed and Chemisorbed Layers and 2D Phase Transitions. Fluid Crystal Phases and Phase Transitions Structure of Nanowires, Quantum Dots, Magnetic Dot and Hole Arrays. Structures of Surface Reconstruction, Thin Films, Liquid Surfaces, Confined liquids Magnetic multilayers and interfaces

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New sorts of Charge, Spin and Orbital Ordering and Polarons in Complex Oxides: Manganites, Hi-Tc S/C, and so forth

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Imaging - constrained by size to which we can center pillar down to. Relies on upon Source Brilliance. Current farthest point 0.1 microns (Hard X-Rays), 35 nm (Soft X-Rays)

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Microbeam investigations of Residual Strain in Materials Schematic drawing of a x-beam microbeam analyze. Bended mirrors center the synchrotron x beams down to a width of short of what one micron on the specimen. The microbeam infiltrates every layer of the specimen, and a territory finder measures the bearings of the scattered x beams. Here, the example comprises of a roll-finished nickel substrate secured with two epitaxial movies: a support layer and a superconductor (YBCO). The identifier picture gives a grain-by-grain depiction of the nuclear structure, introduction, and strain of every layer.

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Schematic of an examining x-beam nanoprobe utilizing zone plate centering. Illustration - Element particular Imaging of Cells

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What is trade inclination? W.H. Meiklejohn, C.P. Bean, Phys Rev. , 105 , 904(1957). J. Nogués, Ivan K. Schuller, J. of Magn. Magn. Mater., 192 , 203 (1999).

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bit line current delivers simple pivot field Small sense current courses through piece digit line current creates hard hub field Isolation Transistor "OFF" Isolation Transistor "ON" MR=37% Write at 4mA digit line and 3.2mA piece line current "Read Mode" "Compose Mode"

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H CF Random-field, space state, and so forth., models Super trade (AF-coupling) Frustrated super trade (AF-coupling) - 1 +1 - 've H E +'ve H E H CF 10nm U. Nowak et. al., J. Magn. Magn. also, Mater., 240 , 243 (2002). A.P. Malozemoff, J. Appl. Phys., 63, 3874 (1988).

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Phase Contrast Imaging (B.Lai et al./APS)

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Sample (1-10 mm) can be in air, water, or any low-ingestion substance. Indicator framework f scintillator 0.5 m X-beams CCD/video Lens f x Motion stages y z Experimental set-up

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Wah-Keat Lee et al./APS

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X-beam Photoemission Spectroscopy Energy Bands and Fermi Surfaces of vital materials - XPES/SPXPES Symmetry of S/C Order Parameter and Electron Phonon coupling in Hi-Tc S/C

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Metal Clusters and Magnetism; From Atoms to Solids (Nora Berrah/ALS) Electrons Mott Scattering

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Metal Clusters and Magnetism Mott Polarimeter Detection Measure the turn segment parallel to the photon Electron discharged oppositely to the photons, at 45  regarding the capacity ring plane.

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IXS measures S(q, ) to ~2meV determination (t≤ ps.) Phonons in Liquids, Glasses, Quantum Crystals, Semiconductors, Metals Electronic Excitations in metals, Hi-Tc Oxides, Spin-Peierls Chains, Mott Insulators

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X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS)- - measures time scales more prominent than ms. Flow of Colloids, Liquid Surfaces

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Pump-Probe Expts.- - measures reaction on time scales ns. on the other hand more noteworthy.

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Microscope 50 nm determination Triggering pump < 1 ps determination 10  m Time determined test <100 ps determination J.Stohr, A.Scholl et al./SSRL Photoconductive switch Sample Deposition sputter affidavit (CXRO) e-bar dissipation (PEEM) Waveguide Structure - photograph lithography, lift-off (UCB microlab) Patterning Focused Ion Beam (FIB) carving (NCEM) Conducting wire Magnetic Cells Substrate: GaAs Current

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Ground plane GaAs waveguide H 10 m Waveguide: 200 nm Cu Pattern: 20 nm Co 90 Fe 10 Gradient picture Movie H XMCD picture Time 1 m

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X-Ray Waveguides Capable of concentrating hard X-Ray pillar down to <50nm In 1-or 2-D

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Geophysics and Environmental Science Diamond Anvil Cell combined with little splendid shafts empowered investigations of structure (phases).dynamics (Equation of State) of minerals in earth's mantle and center; new periods of Hydrogen,ice, and so on. Fluorescence Microtomography yielded data on move of components into environment, and so on

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Ultimate Goal Can we picture real iotas (and possibly electrons) in genuine space and time?

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Why go lensless? (Affability of Janos Kirz) A strategy for 3D imaging of 0.5 – 20 µm disengaged protests Too thick for EM (0.5 µ m is pragmatic furthest point of confinement) Too thick for tomographic X-beam microscopy (profundity of center < 1 µ m at 10 nm determination for delicate X-beams regardless of the possibility that focal points get to be accessible) Goals < 10 nm determination (3D) in 1 - 10µ m estimate natural examples (little solidified hydrated cell, organelle; see macromolecular totals) Limitation: radiation harm! 2 nm determination in less delicate nanostructures (Inclusions, porosity, groups, composite nanostructures, mist concentrates… ) eg: atomic strainers, impetuses, split proliferation

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Image reproduction from the diffraction design Lenses do it, mirrors do it – yet they utilize the full complex adequacy! Recording the diffraction power prompts to the "phase issue"! Holographers do it – yet they blend in a reference wave, require high determination identifier or similar exactness contraption Crystallographers do it – yet they utilize MAD, isomorphous substitution, or different traps (plus the enhancement of numerous rehashes)

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"Oversampling": Non-gems: design ceaseless, can do better inspecting of force Finer testing; bigger exhibit; littler change; "limited support" (territory around example must be clear!) Miao proposal

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Reconstruction Equations can at present not be comprehended logically Fienup iterative calculation Reciprocal space Real space Impose diffraction sizes Impose limited bolster Positivity of electron thickness makes a difference! Miao proposition

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DIFFRACTION IMAGING BY J. MIAO ET AL 2-D recreation with Fienup-sort calculation Both levels demonstrate on the grounds that the profundity of center is adequate Resolution = 8 nm (new record) From Miao, Ishikawa, Johnson, Anderson, Lai, Hodgson PRL Aug 2002 SEM picture of a 3-D Ni microfabricated question with two levels 1 µm separated Only top level shows to valuable degree Diffraction design taken at 2 Å wavelength at SPring 8 from Howells

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MIAO ET AL 3-D RECONSTRUCTIONS Miao et al 3-D remaking of a similar protest match an and b are areas through the picture c is 3-D thickness Resolution = 55 nm

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JCHS 7 Successful reproduction of picture from delicate X-beam dot alone . SEM Image X-beam reproduction 50 nm distance across Gold Balls on straightforward SiN film. No "auxiliary picture" was utilized Approximate question limit acquired from autocorrelation fn. *How to make a separated protest ? Utilize AFM to expel undesirable balls. He, Howells, Weierrstall, Spence Chapman, Marchesini et al. Phys Rev B In press. 03, Acta A.59, 143 (2003) .

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I.K. Robinson et al. gold nanocrystals 7.5 KeV shaft at the APS PRL 87, 195505 (2001)

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New contraption: Diffraction designs from yeast cells D. Shapiro et al., Stony Brook

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Rapid improvement of quickening agent innovation, laser innovation, X-Ray Physics and Scientific Knowledge will introduce a Revolution throughout the following 2 decades.

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In the Decades after 2003… . Overhauled Rings,LCLS,LUX,CIRCE,TJFEL XFEL Brilliances increment by 3-12 requests of extent Femtosecond X-Ray beats/attosecond beats Total transverse soundness Photon decadences go from 0.4 to 10

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t=  t=0 Aluminum plasma established plasma G =1 G =10 thick plasma G =100 high thickness matter 1 - 4 - 2 4 10 Density (g/cm - 3 ) Femtochemistry Nanoscale Dynamics in Condensed matter Atomic Physics Plasma and Warm Dense Matter Structural Studies on Single Particles and Biomolecules FEL Science/Technology Presented to BESAC 10-Oct-2000 Science Assessment Critical Decision 0 endorsed 13-June 2001 Program created by universal group of researchers working with quickening agent and laser material science groups "the beginning.... not the end"

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Single atom imaging? Nuclear determination structures known for couple of mammalian film proteins! Gather numerous single particle diffraction designs from quick x-beam beats, and recreate? Lysozyme detonates in ~50 fsec R. Neutze et al ., Nature 406 , 752 (2000)

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Undulator Seed laser Ebeam log (control) Saturation Distance FEL Interaction Electron slips in reverse one wavefront for each undulator period Electrons are bundled affected by the light that they transmit. The group measurements are normal for the wavelength of the light.

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100 m J - 1 mJ @ 800 nm XUV @ 3 – 30 nm h = 10 - 8 - 10 - 5 t Propagation Recombination 0 w XUV x t b - W b Ionization Energy Laser electric field High-Harmonic Generation Noble Gas Jet (He, Ne, Ar, Kr)

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High Gain Harmonic Generation Method to achieve short wavelength FEL yield from longer wavelength input seed laser. Input seed at w 0 covers electron pillar in vitality modulator undulator. Vitality adjustment is changed over to spatial grouping in chicane magnets. Electron shaft transmits intelligibly at