Sudden Oak Death in Washington State

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Sudden Oak Death in Washington State

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What is Sudden Oak Death? To start with seen in mid 1990s Two sorts of side effects Canker Foliar scourge Caused by Phytophthora ramorum (Oomycetes) Over 70 plant has Most of the flare-up in focal beach front CA Dead tanoak in Muir Woods NP, CA Foliar indications on Rhododendron

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Two unmistakable maladies brought about by Phytophthora ramorum Sudden Oak Death Red oaks, beech, and tanoak Stem sores underneath the bark support and execute tree Cankers regularly drain or overflow Can murder grown-up trees "Deadlock" has P. ramorum foliar curse/Ramorum scourge Non-oak has Spots and blotches on leaves & shoot bite the dust back Can slaughter adolescent plants, as a rule not deadly for develop plants Spreads the ailment Slide from the USDA PRED Training Module

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Phytophthora spore stages Phytophthora flourishes in wet conditions P. ramorum diseases started by sporangia and zoospores Chlamydospores can continue in soil and leaf litter Sexual oospores are impervious to harm Sporangia containing swimming zoospores Chlamydospores Oospores ( P. infestans )

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How P. ramorum spreads Water - Wind-driven rain, water system, spillover Humans – soil on explorer's boots and bike tires, nursery plants Wildlife

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P. ramorum hereditary qualities Two mating sorts – A1 and A2 Three clonal ancestries – NA1, NA2, EU1 NA1 and NA2 All A2 EU1 Mostly A1 , with a couple A2 There is worry about NA and EU populaces mating, yet this has not been watched

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P. ramorum in North American woods SOD at present found in 14 CA regions and 1 OR area These provinces are under isolate SOD not known to be set up anyplace else in N.A. woods Map from Kelly, UC-Berkeley Slide from the USDA PRED Training Module

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Sudden Oak Death in California Tanoak ( Lithocarpus densiflorus ) and oak species influenced Tree demise fundamentally along urban-wildland interface Dying trees made perils for occupants Increased fire danger in wildland ranges from dead trees Photo: Marin County Fire Department

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Infested territory isolated and destruction endeavored 2001-2004: invaded zone diminished or continued as before 2005-introduce: pervaded region expanding Area under isolate now 166 sq miles SOD in Oregon Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

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Risk Group III Risk Group II Risk Group I Risk of sudden oak passing in light of P. ramorum atmosphere coordinating and hardwood backwoods thickness in the USA (High) Fowler, G., Magarey, R., Colunga, M. 2006. Atmosphere have mapping of Phytophthora ramorum , causal specialist of sudden oak demise In: Frankel, Susan J.; Shea, Patrick J.; and Haverty, Michael I., tech. coords. Procedures of the sudden oak demise second science symposium: the condition of our insight. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-196. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Division of Agriculture: 329-332

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P. ramorum in European woodlands Rhododendron ponticum Red Oak: Quercus rubra These species utilized as ornamentals as a part of WA Beech: Fagus sylvatica Photo: DEFRA Slide from the USDA PRED Training Module

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SOD Risk

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Nursery 2002 0 2003 1 2004 25 2005 16 2006 12 2007 7 2008 4 Forest and stream 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 0 2006 2 2007 6 2008 6 Washington P. ramorum overviews

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What happens when P. ramorum is distinguished in a nursery

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Summary of P. ramorum in Washington Found in nursery stock, not thought to be set up in common or urban scene APHIS and WSDA direct yearly overviews to review creation nurseries DNR conducts stream goading and timberland studies Many plants local to Washington are known hosts Potential for effect on local biological community Quarantines might be forced if identified in scene Slide by Norm Dart

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Recognizing Symptoms Sudden Oak Death of oaks Ramorum scourge of different hosts Key to figure out whether tests ought to be submitted for P. ramorum testing in Washington concentrate on as of late obtained (or close as of late acquired) camellia, kalmia, lilac, pieris, rhododendron, or viburnum

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Symptoms on trees P. cambivora on Beech Bleeding ulcers Cankers can support the tree and murder it Host species in Fagaceae: oaks, beech, tanoak Other Phytophthora spp can bring about similar side effects P. ramorum on Oak

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Similar side effects Phytophthora root ailment and blister Armillaria root sickness

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Bacterial stem infections Bacterial wetwood Bleeding stem ulcers brought on by Pseudomonas syringae

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Important hosts of P. ramorum in WA nurseries Rhododendron Camellia Viburnum These genera represent more than 90% of the positive finds in Washington nurseries Others – Pieris Kalmia

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Rhododendron Shoot scourge Leaf smudge on pacific rhododendron brought on by Phytophthora ramorum . Photograph by Oregon Department of Forestry.

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P. ramorum side effects on local rhododendron Shoot dieback Foliar scourge Foliar curse Rhododendron macrophyllum Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University Slide from the USDA PRED Training Module

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Root decay of rhododendron Phytophthora root spoil - not brought about by P. ramorum Slide from the USDA PRED Training Module Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

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Leaf corruption of Rhododendron Sun sear, sore does not stretch out down leaf midrib Gray curse can create on sun burned Rhododendron leaves Photo: Rich Regan, Oregon State University

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P. ramorum on Camellia Brown injuries: unpredictable and limited to leaf tip Photos: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture & Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA Slide from the USDA PRED Training Module

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Symptoms on camellia Look for lower leaves that have tumbled off Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

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Sun Scorch of Camellia Brown spot not reaching out along petiole or midrib of leaf Slide by Norm Dart

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Viburnum V. plicatum "Mariesii" Viburnum tinus "Spring Bouquet" V. davidii

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Symptoms Gray shape Stem infection Foliage and shoot curse Botrytis P. ramorum

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Some different hosts Grand fir Bigleaf maple Pacific madrone Lilac

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Should a tainted plant be submitted for research facility examination? Plants prone to be contaminated by Phytophthora ramorum - Rhododendron , Camellia , and Viburnum Affected plant is on host list and bought since 2002, Affected plant is close to an as of late obtained have plant Symptoms are predictable with Phytophthora ramorum: Brown leaf spots with diffuse edges Shoot tip dieback

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Sample referral and accommodation In Washington state Master Gardeners and Extension Agents are requested that submit presume tests to the WSU Puyallup Plant Clinic If you decide a specimen ought to be submitted Download and round out plant facility test shape and take after affirmed techniques Please counsel the plant center before sending tests

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For more data please visit the WSU P. ramorum training website page: You may likewise call the WSU Plant Diagnostic Lab at (253) 445-4582 with extra inquiries identifying with P. ramorum diagnostics or in the event that you might want to have a plant tried. Slide by Norm Dart