Sub-atomic and Rheological Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid and Equine Synovial Fluid for the Treatment of Lameness

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Atomic and Rheological Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid and Equine Synovial Fluid for the Treatment of Lameness in Horses Sara Tracy Advisors: Dr. Skip Rochefort PhD and *Dr. Jill Parker DVM Danielle Leiske Dept. of Chemical Engineering and *College of Veterinary Medicine Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

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Objective Establish typical properties of equine synovial liquid Compare to properties of hyaluronic corrosive arrangements of different fixations

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Motivation The stallion business loses around 1 billion dollars every year because of weakness. Weakness: A sign of an auxiliary or practical issue in at least one appendages that is clear amid development or in the standing position. Hyaluronic corrosive is utilized to treat joint issues in both steeds and people.

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Background Synovial Fluid Multipurpose liquid encompassing every articular joint Synovial liquid has both gooey and versatile properties (viscoelastic) Viscosity identifies with grease Elasticity identifies with stun assimilation

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Background Hyaluronic Acid (HA) High sub-atomic weight biopolyelectrolyte made up of rehashing glucuronic corrosive and N-acetylglucosamine subunits Major segment of synovial liquid Exhibits viscoelastic properties Commonly acquired from: Chicken brushes Human umbilical ropes Bacterial maturation forms Molecular weight around 0.5 to 10 million Da

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Joints of center

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Joints Skeletal perspective of the joints

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Joints Common issues with equine joints: Degenerative Joint Disease – DJD Damage to the articular ligament Commonly influences intensely worked and matured steeds Osteochondritis Dissecans – OCD Failure of the bone hidden the smooth articular ligament to frame legitimately Commonly influences youthful stallions

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Synovial Fluid Average HA focus 0.5 to 5.0 mg/mL Average sub-atomic weight 2 to 10 million Da Viscosity at a shear rate of 0.1/second 0.1 to 1.0 Poise Hyaluronic Acid Joint Supplementation Intra-articular infusion Intravenous infusion Oral organization Synthovial 7/Hyalun Molecular weight - around 1.5 million Da Concentration – 3 to 5 mg/mL Joints

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Tests Rheology The rheometer measures both ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY Steady shear test measures the consistency as a component of shear rate Dynamic oscillatory shear test measures the thick modulus and flexible modulus as an element of recurrence Rheometrics RFS II

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Tests Steady Shear Test Plate pivots at expanding shear rates Torque, or shear push, is measured by the rheometer Viscosity = shear stretch shear rate

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Tests Bottom plate turns at expanding shear rates Shear push is measured on the top cone Viscosity diminishes with expanding shear rates because of sub-atomic unraveling

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Tests Dynamic Oscillatory Shear Test Plate wavers at expanding frequencies Strain and push are measured to decide G' and G'' G' speaks to the versatile (stockpiling) modulus G'' speaks to the gooey (misfortune) modulus When G' > G'' the liquid carries on more versatile When G' < G'' the liquid acts more thick

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strain = forced stretch = measured G' (versatile modulus) = in stage G'' (gooey modulus) = out of stage Tests

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Tests Capillary Viscometry Known weakenings of the liquid are utilized and the stream times are measured The stream times are utilized to gauge relative thickness Relative consistency = arrangement stream time dissolvable stream time

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Conclusion Different joints have distinctive rheological properties, which could mean diverse HA fixations Synovial liquid got from the hawk joint acts like a 1 to 2 mg/mL HA arrangement, and smother joint liquid acts like a 2 to 3 mg/mL HA arrangement

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Future Work Perform light scrambling to decide the particular fixation and sub-atomic weight of HA in synovial liquid examples Study the viability of various types of managing HA Explore the impacts of changing sub-atomic weights and centralizations of HA supplements on an equine test amass

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute URISC Dr. Skip Rochefort, OSU ChE Dept Dr. Jill Parker, OSU College of Veterinary Medicine Danielle Leiske and Erica Zaworski Dr. Kevin Ahern Acknowledgments

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