Structural Engineering along the coast - natural issues and arrangements

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Structural Building along the coast - ecological issues and arrangements. Dr. M. C. Deo IIT Bombay. Substance Presentation - sorts of issues, harm Auxiliary measures - dykes, ocean dividers, bulkheads, revetments, crotches,

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Slide 1

Structural Engineering along the drift - ecological issues and arrangements Dr. M. C. Deo IIT Bombay Contents Introduction - sorts of issues, harm Structural measures - dykes, ocean dividers, bulkheads, revetments, crotches, storm surge hindrances Non-auxiliary measures - sand ridges, shoreline food, bio-shields ( mangroves, coral reefs) Closure

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Introduction Indian coastline (~7500 km) powerless against perils ordinary  wind, waves, tides, streams, silt development extraordinary  typhoons, storm surges, (~ 6/yr ) tidal wave, ( 1, 2/century ) oil slicks,… Impact relies on upon : - Density of populace, ( 25 %  inside 50 km ) - Design of structures and nature of development, - Environment (nearness of mangrove forests,..)

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Cyclones & Storm surges tropical tornado  a pivoting twist (low weight unsettling influence for the most part with overwhelming precipitation) As twister methodologies waterfront territory, solid on-shore winds make  water ebb and flow dissemination, together with bringing down of weights  ascent of a few meters in ocean level (Storm surge)  flooding expansive regions of the drift

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Tsunami Primary : Earthquake Cause Secondary : Landslides, volcanic exercises Wave ht. @ shore : at least 20m Time of wavering Tsunami: 30 to 60 min Wind produced gravity waves: 3 to 20 sec Tides: 12 or 24 hr Warning framework: Occurrence of the wave creating quake can be recorded on seismographs and conveyed by means of satellites to the notice focus, where PC based models figure wave statures and travel times. This could be confirmed by a progression of wave rider floats and likewise tidal wave cautioning can be issued. Such cautioning frameworks exist in Pacific nations including the U.S. what's more, Canada since 1964.

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Damage because of water originating from the ocean: -Associated hydrostatic, hydrodynamic powers, - Impact of articles being conveyed by the assaulting water mass, - High speed streams, overtopping, - Resulting flooding and ebb and flow actuated disintegration.

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Coastal Erosion - by breaking waves and related ebbs and flows Oil Spills created by mischances including tankers, freight ships, pipelines, storerooms can hurt marine life, which thusly can harm individuals through sustenance

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Structural measures for perils lessening Sea Dykes Protect low-lying ranges against flooding Mound of sand and earth – inclining towards ocean to diminish wave keep running up Slope surface defensively covered with grass, black-top, stones, or solid sections Shore security manual, 1984, Coastal Engineering Manual, 2003

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Sea dividers Sloping confronted (heavily clad with solid chunks or reinforcement units) Parallel to shoreline Vertical confronted (concrete or stone filled) Problem - toe disintegration (use with crotches)

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Revetments - assurance from disintegration Bulkheads - essentially for slant solidness

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Groins - Fixed or flexible - High or low stature - Permeable or impermeable Walls Perpendicular to shoreline; rubble hill or sheet heaps Updrift  accumulation Downdrift  disintegration  saw-tooth shoreline Storm surge boundaries  A progression of mobile entryways (sliding or turning) that counteract water interruption in low lying zones - open – regularly; however shut – in tempest surges

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Non-basic measures - Building sand rises and developing vegetation around them - Artificial shoreline food – expulsion of sand from one place and transportation to some other place upstream where disintegration dreaded - Providing bio-shields

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Bio-shields Mangroves Coral reefs Sea grass Sea weeds Animal living spaces Marine parks Marine havens

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Mangroves Located in between tidal areas, can develop in saline water and in shielded spots like springs and estuaries Act as cradle against tempest surges capture disintegration, trap silt, harbor angle But certain species are touchy to exorbitant sedimentation, stagnation, oil slicks In late Gujarat and Orissa violent winds, nearness of mangrove supports  less devastation (Source: www.deh.gov.au/.../ensure/pictures/mangroves.jpg)

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Coral Reefs - characteristic obstructions against disintegration and tempest surge (Source: mbgnet.m obot.org/salt/coral/faq.htm ) corals  sl ow developing provinces of creatures - development rate = 1, 10 cm/yr. - happen in shallow tropical ranges - ocean water ought to be perfect, clear and warm - give environment to an extensive assortment of creatures and plants

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obliteration - flare-up of reef-crushing creatures, storms, exhaustion of fundamental symbiotants synthetic contamination, mechanical harm, supplement or residue stacking important to measure the insurance the bio-shields give and decide restrains past which they are not all that compelling

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Oil spill control Mechanical Containment Booms and boundaries > Skimmers Sorbents (oil gathering wipes) Chemical and Biological dispersants - deteriorate oil - Used in conjunction with mechanical implies

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