Status of Next Generation Cellular and Wireless Local Area Networks and Current Research Activities

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Western Michigan University. WMU is situated in Kalamazoo, MichiganWMU is one of 15 Michigan state schoolsWMU has more than 28,000 studentsThe Computer Science is home to around 400 studentsCS has 18 employees, 5 full teachers, 7 partner educators, and 6 associate teachers.. Layout. IntroductionCellular Coverage in the United StatesCurrent Problems in the Telecommunications IndustryRev

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Status of Next Generation Cellular and Wireless Local Area Networks and Current Research Activities Mohsen Guizani Computer Science Department Western Michigan University

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Western Michigan University WMU is situated in Kalamazoo, Michigan WMU is one of 15 Michigan state schools WMU has more than 28,000 understudies The Computer Science is home to around 400 understudies CS has 18 employees, 5 full teachers, 7 relate educators, and 6 right hand teachers.

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Outline Introduction Cellular Coverage in the United States Current Problems in the Telecommunications Industry Review of Cellular Technologies Wi-Fi: Competing or Complementary Technology? The Future Current Research Activities Conclusions

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Current Research Activities Research Goal 1x EV-DV Architecture Resource Allocations Techniques Cross Layer Design Overview Intelligent Network QoS Protocols Intelligent Network QoS Validation Protocol Wireless QoS Based Routing Protocol

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Introduction A mix of variables has prompted to the ebb and flow remote circumstance in the US, which is fairly poor in many regards Rapid mechanical change Rapid change in way individuals utilize innovation Poor business and speculation choices Unrealistic desires for new advances Competition on elements and bundles instead of hidden foundation More supposing and clever basic leadership in future ought to empower unfathomably enhanced remote administration

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Cellular Coverage in the US: Reason for Poor Coverage is comparative (regularly poor) since all suppliers utilize a similar recieving wire towers Much of the designing behind tower situation is done in the days of yore of 3 watt PDAs at 800 MHz in autos with outer radio wire; nowadays, the is much lower-controlled units inside structures or autos with no outside reception apparatuses NIMBY ("not in my patio") disorder: Wealthy neighborhoods decline to permit unattractive radio wire towers

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Cellular Coverage in the US (Continued) Call by one of the writers from Baltimore, MD to Washington DC Dulles International Airport intruded on seven circumstances because of scope holes—incompletely attributed to the way that there are five noteworthy cell suppliers each of which needs to assemble a whole system The Yankee Group assesses that it would take $50B to $100B to convey cell framework up to snuff Carriers don't have that sort of cash Would not take care of political issues Convenience trumps benefit quality Relatively few individuals have relinquished landline telephones

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Cellular Coverage in the US (Continued) Source: Wall Street Journal, 4/15/04

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Cost Constraints Minimal income every moment of broadcast appointment Brutal rivalry Availability of free broadcast appointment and long separation bundles No "executioner application" has ever emerged Not cameras and capacity to send photographs People need tried and true voice correspondences Cellular telephones unacceptable as remote modems Promoters did not consider human elements E-mail effectively all around served by devoted gadgets, for example, the well known Blackberry by RIM

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Cost Constraints (cont.) Access to the Internet is done while very still Coverage issues would hinder most operations if in movement Cannot generally do anything while driving or strolling Screen is too little Competing advances, for example, Wi-Fi are vastly improved

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Problems (Continued)

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Problems (proceeded)

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Problems (proceeded)

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1G Cellular Technology Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) Analog Widest scope, significantly more extensive than computerized frameworks Phased out by 2008 Of worry to clients of OnStar, which utilizes it—advanced frameworks' scope poor by correlation Being eliminated in light of the fact that more up to date frameworks can bolster more clients per unit of transmission capacity—transfer speed is most valuable asset

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2G: GSM, CDMA, IS-95-an, iDEN Global System Mobile (GSM) Initially Group Speciale Mobile ; renamed Global System Mobile to give it a universal flavor Combined TDMA/FDMA framework Offered by AT&T, T-Mobile, and Cingular in the US Advantage: With opened tri-band telephone, clients can have cell benefit overall Problem: Outside the US, equal concurrences with US suppliers costly—$~4 every moment for broadcast appointment Better arrangements: Get sponsorship open code for telephone utilized as a part of US—purchase SIM card when abroad from stand; purchase shoddy tri-band telephone in the US, then purchase SIM card when abroad

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2G (Continued) Coded Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Offered by Sprint and Verizon in the US Verizon as of late propelled fast information benefit in light of Phase 1 Evolution Data Only (1xEV-DO) in Washington, DC and San Diego, CA Can deal with the biggest number of clients per unit BW; most financially alluring

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2G (proceeded with) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Use declining Offered by AT&T and Cingular in the US Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) Developed by Motorola Based on TDMA Offered by Nextel in the US Likely to be eliminated for CDMA-2000

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2.5G So-called 2.5 or third era remote advances probably not going to be gainful, particularly given costs paid for range Main pushed is higher speed information Cannot contend with Wi-Fi Nextel is wanting to sidestep by and large What is required is information rate of >2 Mbps

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Beyond Various eras of cell communication more essential to suppliers than clients Maximize income per unit bw Users think more about components, cost, reliability Many elements being pushed are of questionable esteem Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Short Messaging Service (SMS) Walkie-talkie include Reduces interface time to ~2 second versus 15 second dial time Games Downloadable ring tones Replaceable spreads

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Wi-Fi: Is It Really a Good Idea? IEEE 802.11b Caught on quick; makers fuse Wi-Fi contributes tablets; trusts are that this will be the new "executioner application" Wireless LAN hardware deals have been developing—Gartner Group says 2002 spending on all merchants is ~$2.3B; end-client spending expanding by around 50 percent throughout the previous two years

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Wi-Fi: Security Issues Algorithm is utilized, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) disparaged Encryption scratch length too short Initialization vector usage defective Scheme can be split rapidly Successor, WPA, is fix—not a settle Vulnerable to broadband sticking, unless it utilizes recurrence bouncing as does Bluetooth

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Wi-Fi: Security Issues (Continued) Users don't appear to care 70 percent of establishments have not in any case actualized what little safety efforts there are Incompatibilities among seller gear imply that Wi-Fi problem areas must actualize most minimized shared factor, i.e., no security Wi-Fi client sitting alongside "me" at Starbuck's can catch all transmissions to/from my PC Doctor documents in "my" PC Impersonate "me" after "I" have logged off

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Wi-Fi: Security Issues (Concluded) Lack of adaptability PKI has not given coveted arrangement Efficiently and quickly spreading data about denied encryption scratches through vast systems Problem of where to store private or mystery enter securely in a way that hacking can't trade off Smart cards might be the main practical arrangement, yet most tablets have no keen card peruser Could be included through USB port

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Wi-Fi: Business Model No unmistakable plan of action Nobody profiting off of Wi-Fi Not a cost focus, yet a contrivance to pull in clients Issue of illicit utilization of Wi-Fi network—who is at risk? Maryland property holder as of late held at risk when somebody utilized his problem area for an unlawful demonstration Airports and other such places look to Wi-Fi to recover cash no longer got from pay telephones Travelers improbable to consent to open yet another record unless all spots they visit utilize same record

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Wi-Fi: Setup Difficulties and Network Incompatibilities Complex Windows' system setup menus and choices to set the SSID for every hotspot supplier's Access Point Most non-specialized portable workstation clients are hesitant to do as such Technical assistance from child behind counter at Starbuck's, and so on., is a losing recommendation Proliferation of various Wi-Fi hotspot suppliers implies that clients must open a different record for every T-Mobil e account at 2,100 Starbuck's or Kinko's Cometa account at MacDonald's FatPort account in Canada Surf & Sip account at Foley's Irish bars Toshiba account at Arizona's Circle K stores Waypoint account at a couple select inns

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Wi-Fi: User Fees and Speed Problems User charges Disinclination of clients to pay more get to expenses Many feel they are now paying their Internet duty through home memberships Lots of free Wi-Fi get to focuses From organizations that need to pull in clients for their principle item Speed issues Chips executing 802.11b with WEP compel all clients to speed of slowest client at the hotspot

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Wi-Fi: Incompatibilities and Spectrum Shortage Incompatibilities amongst WEP and WPA Problem has not gotten much press since business hotspots have not empowered either—because of seller incongruencies Spectrum deficiency 802.11a has more range allotted to it (which permits it to oblige more simultaneous clients)— however has not yet gotten on Dual 802.11b/a get to focuses and particularly customer client's PCMCIA cards are exceptionally costly; experiences a similar security vulnerabilities

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Wi-Fi: Standards and Scalability Standards 802.11i, 802.11x, and 802.11e "measures" holding up in wings in different levels of assention as to their last specs Problem is that a large number of conveyed tablets and hotspots may improve move up to benchmarks incomprehensible Scalability Inherently not versatile Operates in swarmed unlicensed band with infant screens, cordless telephones, Bluetooth gadgets, microwave broilers Limited number of stations—3 versus 8 for 802.11a

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Wi-Fi: Summar