SOME SOCIAL CAUSES OF PARTNER VIOLENCE

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´╗┐SOME SOCIAL CAUSES OF PARTNER VIOLENCE A. MALE DOMINANCE IN FAMILIES AND SOCIETY Really predominance instead of correspondence B. Abnormal state OF CONFLICT IN FAMILIES C. Social NORMS TOLERATING FAMILY VIOLENCE D. Savagery CHILD REARING E. Savagery IN THE SOCIETY F. Numerous OTHER SOCIAL CAUSES G. Mental CAUSES H. Various CAUSES, ALL INTERWOVEN

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A. Disparity AND ESPECIALLY MALE DOMINANCE Female predominance has a similar impact Male strength more critical in light of the fact that more incessant Husband as the 'leader of the family' National and global information on above

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Marital Power, Conflict, Norm Consensus, and Marital Violence in a Nationally Representative Sample of Korean Couples. Kim, Jae-Yop and Emery, Clifton. 2003. Diary of Interpersonal Violence 18:197-219. N = 1,525 wedded men Phone overview Power measure: Blood and Wolfe Decision Power Index Who had the last say on five choices: Buying an auto Buying a house What work the spouse ought to take What work the wife ought to take\ Whether an accomplice ought to go to work or quit work Answer classes : Wife just, Wife for the most part, Husband and Wife similarly, Husband just, Husband just

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Kim, Jae-Yop and Emery, Clifton. 2003.

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THE CONCEPT OF A "Hazard FACTOR" A CONDITION WHICH INCREASES THE PROBABILITY OF A DISEASE OR PROBLEM EXAMPLES: SMOKING AND DEATH FROM SMOKING RELATED DISEASE (33% shot) MALE DOMINANCE AND WIFE BEATING (20% chance - 7 overlay increment) SPANKING AND DELINQUENCY (24% chance - 5 crease increment) BINGE DRINKING AND WIFE BEATING (19% chance - 3 overlap increment)

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B

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UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS BETWEEN PARTNERS

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'Respect KILLING' STILL RECOGNIZED AND PRACTICED IN SOME MUSLIM COUNTRIES Example Of Jordan, NY Times 1 Feb 03, page A4 Book by Norma Khouri, Honor Lost (Simon and Shuster, 2003)

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The Demographic and Health Surveys Purpose is to track the viability of national family arranging and wellbeing programs. Subsidized by U.S. Office for International Development' (USAID)

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Circumstances when ladies feel it is worthy for a spouse to beat his better half by sort of living arrangement (urban versus provincial)

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Acceptance of explanations behind a husband to beat his significant other is high paying little respect to a lady's basic leadership control

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INTERNATIONAL DATING VIOLENCE STUDY I CAN THINK OF A SITUATION WHEN I WOULD APPROVE OF A HUSBAND SLAPPING HIS WIFE'S FACE Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly Agree What percent of understudies in every nation don't emphatically oppose this idea?

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TOLERANCE FOR SLAPPING A SPOUSE: HIGHER THAN WE THOUGHT * David W. Moore The Gallup Organization Murray Straus The Family Research Laboratory University of New Hampshire * Paper introduced at the yearly meeting of the American Association For Public Opinion Research, May 18-21, 1995.

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Nationally illustrative example of 1,023 grown-ups Asked : "Are there any circumstances that you can envision in which you would endorse of a spouse slapping his significant other's face?" "Are there any circumstances that you can envision in which you would affirm of a wife slapping her better half's better half's face?" Respondents could answer Yes or No. Address initially utilized as a part of a study in 1968 for the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence For both inquiries, 21% addressed yes. See the Commission Reports, 1969; Owens and Straus, 1975; Stark and McEvoy, 1970) and were additionally utilized as a part of a 1985 and 1992 review and in addition the present study.

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MY QUALITATIVE EXPLORATIONS SUGGESTED THIS WAS An UNDERESTIMATE WHAT COULD CAUSE THE UNDERESTIMATE? Numerous THINGS. DAVID MOORE SUGGESTED IT WAS DUE TO A COMBINATION OF: Reluctance To Reveal Socially Undesirable Beliefs A Question Order Effect HUSBAND SLAP WIFE QUESTION ALWAYS ASKED FIRST QUESTION ORDER EXPERIMENT Form A = Husband slap spouse address first Form B = Wife slap husband address first.

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS STUDY The should be distrustful about all examination results\ The logical way to deal with doubt is to do assist inquire about Importance of various strategies: subjective and in addition quantitative How an analysis can be utilized to test sociology speculations The degree to which there are unrecognized social standards allowing viciousness against accomplices The more noteworthy social adequacy of savagery by ladies against accomplices, if it is "legitimized" and generally "minor brutality" Men are more tolerating of viciousness by ladies than are ladies Feminist ladies are less tolerating of savagery than other ladies How to peruse and decipher a three-dimensional table

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D. WHY DO WE HAVE CULTURAL NORMS THAT APPROVE OR TOLERATE USE OF VIOLENCE IN FAMILIES? LEARNING OF VIOLENCE THROUGH OBSERVING PARENTS HIT EACH OTHER AND FROM CORPORAL PUNISHMENT USE OF VIOLENCE BY GOVENMENT

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LEARNED BY WHITNESSING VIOLENCE BETWEEN PARENTS Data from meetings with a broadly illustrative specimen of 970 American guardians in Gallup review, 1995. Asked the guardians talked with: "Contemplating the entire time when you were a young person, were there events when your ( father/stepfather) hit your (mom/stepmother) or tossed something at her? YES NO I f yes : how frequently did that happen? Never, Once, Twice,..3-5 times, 6-10 times, 11-20 times, at least 20 times What about your ( mother/stepmother) hitting your (dad/&father)? Were there events when that happened YES NO Saw hitting by either parent 23.4% Father hit mother 19.5% Mother hit father 12.6%

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SPANKING TEACHES VIOLENCE

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WHAT PREVOKES SPANKING? WONT CLEAN UP HIS ROOM - 9% STEALING - 27% HITS OTHER CHILD - 41%

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PROCESSES LINKING CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND FAMILY VIOLENCE ANGER LOW SELF-ESTEEM DEPRESSION LOW PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL VIOLENCE APPROVAL PARTNER ASSAULT CHILD ABUSE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT

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F. SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF FAMILY VIOLENCE IMMATURITY IMPULSIVENESS LOW PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL ANTI-SOCIAL PERSONALITY NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTION JEALOUSY VIOLENT DISPOSITION, AGGRESSIVENESS HOSTILITY, ANGER DEPRESSION LOW SELF ESTEEM DOMINATING PERSONALITY DRUNKENNESS ETC

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THE CONCEPT OF A "Hazard FACTOR" A CONDITION WHICH INCREASES THE PROBABILITY OF A DISEASE OR PROBLEM EXAMPLES: SMOKING AND DEATH FROM SMOKING RELATED DISEASE (33% possibility) MALE DOMINANCE AND WIFE BEATING (20% chance - 7 overlay increment) SPANKING AND DELINQUENCY (24% chance - 5 crease increment) BINGE DRINKING AND WIFE BEATING (19% chance - 3 overlap increment)

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G. Different RISK FACTORS/CAUSES SMALL EFFECT OF ANY SINGLE CAUSE LARGE CUMULATIVE EFECT INTERWOVEN AND INTERACTING

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PARTNER VIOLENCE CHECK LIST (applies to both H-W & W-H Husband utilized low maintenance or unemployed Family salary under $6,000 Husband a manual specialist Husband exceptionally agonized over monetary security Wife extremely disappointed with way of life at least two kids Disagreement over kids Grew up in family in which fatber hit mother Married under ten years Age thirty or under Non-white racial gathering Above normal score on Marital Conflict Index Very high score on Stress Index Wife predominant in family choices Husband was verbally forceful to spouse Wife was verbally forceful to husband Gets tipsy yet is not alcoholic Lived in neighborhood under two years No support in sorted out religion

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Characteristics That Are Important for Wife-beating Husband prevailing in family choices Wife is full-time housewife Wife exceptionally womed about financial security Characteristics That Are Important for Husband beating Wife was physically rebuffed at age thirteen or more by father Wife experienced childhood in family in which mother hit father Wife is a manual laborer

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END FOR SOC 695

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SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE A LARGE PROPORTION OF PHYSICAL AND SEXUAL ABUSE OCCURS WITH THE ACQUIENCE OF OTHERS IMPLICIT CULTURAL NORMS OF TOLERATION CHILD ABUSE PARTNER VIOLNECE SEXUAL HARRASMENT (AAUP think about shows most happens in classrooms and foyers) PREVENTION IMPLICAITONS PARTLY DUE TO NORM OF FAMILY PRIVACY BUT WHAT ABOUT ACQUIENCE BY OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS?

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