Soil Morphology and Classification

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E skyline. A skyline. B skyline. (Illuvial). (Elluvial). C skyline. R skyline. O skyline. . Expert Horizons. B skyline. Enough data?. Sub-skyline assignments. Sub-skyline assignments. p

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Soil Morphology and Classification

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Master Horizons Enough data? O skyline A skyline R skyline E skyline (Elluvial) C skyline B skyline B skyline (Illuvial)

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Sub-skyline assignments

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Sub-skyline assignments Subordinate refinements inside ace skylines p – furrowing/unsettling influence t – dirt aggregation g – gleying h – illuvial natural matter w – advancement of shading/structure o – oxic

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Subordinate qualification (p = furrowed) Disturbed surface skyline (development, field, ranger service) Used with the An ace skyline (e.g. Ap skyline) Ap skyline

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Subordinate refinement (t = earth amassing) Translocation of mud or shaped set up Coatings or discrete Used with the B ace skyline (e.g. Bt) If lessened, can be utilized with the g sub skyline (Btg) *

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Subordinate refinement (g = gleying) Oxygen denied or decreased state because of water immersion. Decrease of iron (Fe III to Fe II) low chroma Often utilized with B ace skyline (Bg skyline), likewise E and C skyline. oxidized material Fe 3+ oxidized gleyed material Fe 2+

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Subordinate refinement (h = natural collection) Accumulation of illuvial natural matter-metal edifices Coatings on sand and discrete particles h = "humic" esteem and chroma around 3 or less Used with the B ace skyline (e.g. Bh skyline) * Bh skyline "spodic skyline"

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Subordinate qualification (w = shading or stucture) Non-illuvial improvement of shading or structure "w" can = "feeble" Commonly utilized with the B ace skyline (e.g. Bw) Bw

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Subordinate refinement (o = oxic skyline) Low action dirts Few weatherable materials Little shake structure Fe and Al oxides

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Subordinate qualifications g – gleying h – illuvial natural matter p – furrowing/unsettling influence t – mud amassing w – advancement of shading/structure o – oxic

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Subordinate qualifications and Organic Matter

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Subordinate qualification (an, e, i) Denotes the level of natural matter disintegration in the O skyline . Oa – exceptionally decayed (sapric) Oe – modestly deteriorated (hemic) Oi – marginally disintegrated (fibric) Sapric –most decayed, low plant fiber, low water content Hemic – middle of the road decompostion Fibric – minimum decayed, conspicuous strands

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Summary Master: O, An, E, B, C, R Sub skyline images: g, h, p, t, w and a,e,i Examples: Oa, Oe, Oi Bt Bg Btg Bw Ap

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Other Designations

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Vertical Subdivisions Bt skylines Characterized by comparative ace as well as subordinate properties isolated by "degree". Bt1 Bt2 Bt3

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Transitional Horizons Transitional layers between ace skylines. An E B E Dominant character Subordinate Character

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Synthesis Ap AE E Bh Btg1 Btg2

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Soil Taxonomy

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Soil Classification/Taxonomy Hierarchical Soil Profile Based on soil profile qualities and the idea of soils as a characteristic body. Perceptible properties: shading, surface, structure, pH, O.M… Genesis 1883 V.V. Dukachaev: atmosphere, vegetation, soil 1927 C.F. Marbut (USDA) connected to U.S. (1965)

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Soil Classification/Taxonomy USDA arrangement framework Soil Survey Staff 1965 Soil Taxonomy distributed 1975 Adamsville : Hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamment

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Soil Taxonomy Hierarchy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Order Suborder Great gathering Sub aggregate Family Series 12 63 250 1400 8000 19,000

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Units for Soil Classification Pedon – littlest three-dimensional unit that showcases the full scope of properties normal for a given soil. (1-10 m 2 of zone) -the basic unit of soil characterization Polypedon – gathering of nearly related pedons in the field Soil Series – class of soils overall which share a typical suite of soil profile properties

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Soil Sampling Units Malabar Series

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Diagnostic Horizons Surface Subsurface

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Diagnostic Surface Horizons Epipedons Mollic Umbric Ochric Histic Melanic Plaggen Anthropic

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Diagnostic Surface Horizons X = Florida Melanic X Plaggen Mollic Histic X Umbric Anthropic X Ochric X

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Mollic Epipedon Thickness > 18-25 cm Color value < 3.5 damp chroma < 3.5 sodden Organic Carbon > 0.6 % Base Saturation > 50 % Structure firmly created Organic carbon = natural matter x 0.5

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View Tim Kiser's guide Taken in Elkhart, Iowa (See more photographs here ) 41°27' 04" N, 93°31' 52" W41.451073-93.530988

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Umbric Epipedon Meets all criteria of the Mollic epipedon, with the exception of base immersion < half Chemically not quite the same as Mollic

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Ochric Epipedon Too: thin light low in O.M Mollic Umbric Ochric = pale Extremely normal

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Histic Epipedon Organic skyline Formed in wet zones Black to dull chestnut Low mass thickness 20-30 cm thick Organic = > 20% - 35% O.M. ( water immersion, mud content)

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Melanic Epipedon Similar in properties to Mollic Formed in volcanic slag Lightweight, Fluffy

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Anthropic Horizon Resembles mollic (shading, o.m.) Use by people Shells and bones Water from people

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Plaggen Epipedon Produced by long haul (100s yrs.) manuring Old, human-made surface skyline Absent in U.S. > 50 cm thick

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Diagnostic Surface Horizons Epipedons Mollic Umbric Ochric Histic Melanic Plaggen Anthropic Very regular "particular" Human-inferred

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Organic Matter Accumulation Histic Mollic, Umbric ochric O.M. collection time Parent material Vegetation built up t max = 3000 yrs

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Diagnostic Sub-surface Horizons

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Formation Translocation Transformation Clays Organic Matter Oxides

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Subsurface Horizons Formation Translocation Transformation Organic Matter Clays Oxides smectites Dark hues Metals (Fe, Al) Iron Aluminum Kaolinite Also: salts, carbonates, sulfides

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Natric Agric Calcic Gypsic Salic Duripan Fragipan Placic Albic Argillic Spodic Oxic Cambic Kandic Sombric sulfuric Sub-Horizon Designations

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Albic (white) Horizon Light-hued (Value > 6 soggy ) Elluvial (E ace horizon*) Low in earth, Fe and Al oxides Generally sandy finished Low substance reactivity (low CEC) Typically overlies Bh or Bt skylines albic *not all E skylines are albic skylines

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Argillic Horizon Illuvial gathering of silicate muds Illuvial in light of overlying skyline Clay spans Clay coatings

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Argillic Horizon Kandic Horizon Low High Activity of Clays Necessary Illuviation of dirt Not Necessary

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Spodic Horizon Illuvial aggregation of natural matter and aluminum (+/ - press) Dark shaded (esteem, chroma < 3) Low base immersion (acidic) Formed under muggy corrosive conditions Spodic

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Elluviation and Illuviation Elluviation (E skyline) Organic matter Clays A Bt An E Bh E Bh skyline Bt skyline Argillic skyline Spodic skyline

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Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons Oxic skyline Highly weathered (high temperatures, high precipitation) -High in Fe, Al oxides -High in low-action muds (kaolinite < smectite < vermiculite) movement

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Diagnostic Horizons Epipedons Subsurface Mollic Umbric Ochric Histic Melanic Plaggen Anthropic Albic Kandic Argillic Spodic Oxic

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Soil Taxonomy Diagnostic Epipedons Diagnostic Subsurface skylines Moisture Regimes Temperature Regimes