SOIL 4213 BIOEN 4213 History of Using Indirect Measures for identifying Nutrient Status

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SOIL 4213 BIOEN 4213 History of Using Indirect Measures for distinguishing Nutrient Status Oklahoma State University

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Field Element Size Area which gives the most exact measure of the accessible supplement where the level of that supplement changes with separation Chlorophyll Meters? What is the association

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FES ought to hypothetically recognize 1. The littlest determination where circumstances and end results connections can be recognized 2. The exact determination where fluctuations between matched specimens of a similar size (range) get to be disconnected and where heterogeneity can be perceived 3. The determination where misapplication could represent a hazard to the earth 4. The treated determination where net financial return is accomplished. 5. The determination where contrasts in yield potential may exist

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Review Science: 283:310-316 By 2020 worldwide interest for rice, wheat, and maize will increment 40% People have been anticipating yield roofs for centuries, and they've never been correct "Matthew Reynolds" CIMMYT Supercharging Photosynthesis: Reproduce the C 4 cycle in rice Role of Biotechnology in Precision Agriculture

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Absorption of Visible Light by Photopigments SPAD 501, 502 (430, 750) Sunlight achieving earth Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll b Phycocyanin Absorption B-Carotene Chlorophyll a 300 400 500 600 700 800 Wavelength, nm Lehninger, Nelson and Cox

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Short wavelength High recurrence High vitality Long wavelength Low recurrence Low vitality Yellow-green Yellow Violet Blue Green-blue Blue-green VISIBLE Color Transmitted Microwaves and short radio Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Radio, FM, TV Gamma Rays Ultraviolet VISIBLE Color Absorbed Infrared X-Rays 0.01 10 380 450 495 570 590 620 750 1x10 6 1x10 11 wavelength, nm Electronic Vibrational Rotational transitions transitions transitions

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Short wavelength High vitality Long wavelength Low vitality Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll b Phycocyanin B-Carotene Chlorophyll a Ultraviolet Infrared X-Rays 0.01 10 380 450 495 570 590 620 750 wavelength, nm

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CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 RNH 2 RNH 2 RNH 2 RNH 2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 Wavelength, nm Near-Infrared Absorption Major Amino and Methyl Analytical Bands and Peak Positions

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White Light Interference Filter Photodiode Phycocyanin Chlorophyll B-Carotene Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll a 380 450 495 570 590 620 750 wavelength, nm

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1993 Dr. Marvin Stone conforms the fiber optics in a compact spectrometer utilized as a part of early bermudagrass N rate considers with the Noble Foundation, 1994. Sensor readings at continuous bermudagrass, N rate * N timing tries different things with the Noble Foundation in Ardmore, OK. Starting results were sufficiently promising to proceed with this work in wheat.

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1995 Extensive field tests taking a gander at changes in sensor readings with changing, development organize, assortment, push separating, and N rates were led. New "reflectance" sensor created.

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Collaborative Project with CIMMYT Variety Selection/Yield Potential Spring Wheat 1996

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CIMMYT Date Location Personnel Objectives Feb, 1997 Ciudad Obregon TEAM-VRT Discuss potential community oriented work Jan, 1999 Obregon & Texcoco Steve Phillips, Joanne LaRuffa, IRSP 98, refine INSEY, 2-Wade Thomason, Sherry Britton, wheel tractor and wheat Joe Vadder, Gordon Johnson, bed grower outline John Solie, Dick Whitney Sep, 1999 Texcoco Erna Lukina IRSP 98, utilization of EY as a choice instrument Aug, 2000 Texcoco Marvin Stone, Kyle Freeman, IRSP 99, uses of Roger Teal, Robert Mullen, INSEY, sensor outline Kathie Wynn, Carly Washmon, for plant rearing Dwayne Needham Jan-Mar 2001 Ciudad Obregon Kyle Freeman Joint coordinated effort on 200-03530 NRI Grant Apr 2001 Ciudad Obregon Kyle Freeman Wheat collect July 2001 El Batan Jagadeesh Mosali, Shambel Moges Micah Humphreys, Paul Hodgen, Carly Washmon Wheat gather Apr 2002 Ciudad Obregon Paul Hodgen NASA Grant June 2002 El Batan Robert Mullen, Kyle Freeman Corn Sensing Oct 2002 El Batan Keri Brixey, Jason Lawles, Kyle Freeman Corn Harvest TOTAL 8 33 http://www.dasnr.okstate.edu/nitrogen_use/cimmyt_visit_2001.htm

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OSU Reflectance Sensor (1996-2002) Crop Target

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OSU Active Sensor (2001-introduce)

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History of Using Indirect Measures for Detecting Nutrient Status NIRS analyzer which is associated with a PC centers infrared beams on a readied test of dried pummeled plant material. The instrument measures protein, fiber and other plant parts on the grounds that every one reflects infrared beams in an unexpected way. Tests and gauges (beforehand described) and afterward scientifically looked at

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History of Using Indirect Measures for Detecting Nutrient Status NIRS (close infrared reflectance spectroscopy) Measuring the vibrations brought on by the extending and bowing of hydrogen bonds with carbon oxygen and nitrogen. Each of the real natural parts of a scavenge or other sustain has light assimilation qualities. These ingestion attributes cause the reflectance that empowers us to recognize plant piece

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Chlorophyll Meters Most WIDELY utilized "Roundabout Measure" Minolta: SPAD (soil plant examination improvement unit ) 501 & 502 light absorbance (light constriction) at 430 (violet) and 750 nm (red/NIR move) No tissue gathering Leaf chlorophyll (SPAD) versus Leaf N fixation and NO 3 - N

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Chlorophyll Meters (cont.) http://www.specmeters.com/Plant_Chlorophyll_Meters/How SPAD meters work IRRI (READ) Go to Factors influencing SPAD values Go to CRITCAL SPAD VALUES for varietal work University of NEBRASKA, adequacy approach High connection between's leaf chlorophyll and leaf N. Why? Test territory. Issues? http://agronomy.ucdavis.edu/uccerice/afs/agfs0394.htm http://www.store.ripplecreek.com/classification greenformulas.html

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Short wavelength High vitality Long wavelength Low vitality Phycoerythrin Chlorophyll b Phycocyanin B-Carotene Chlorophyll a Ultraviolet Infrared X-Rays 0.01 10 380 450 495 570 590 620 750 wavelength, nm

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Response Index versus Adequacy

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On-the-go-substance examinations "SoilDoctor" particular particle terminal mounted on the shank of an anhydrous smelling salts tool Electromagnetic acceptance (EMI) http://oldsci.eiu.edu/material science/DDavis/1160/Ch21Ind/Farady.html VERIS estimations (Missouri) anticipating grain yield sand affidavit profundity to dirt dish electrical conductivity

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Use of EM as an information layer to better foresee yield potential

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On-the-go-compound investigations On-the-go sensors for natural matter and ground slant (Yang, Shropshire, Peterson and Whitcraft) Satellite pictures Aerial pictures (NIR touchy film)

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Implications Reports of enhanced relationship between's backhanded measures and yield (EMI) versus soil test parameters Soil testing (procedure of disposal) no single parameter is required to be corresponded with yield K versus yield P versus yield N versus yield pH versus yield

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FES and SPAD Chlorophyll Meters and Field Element Size What is the association? Backhanded Measures? Is this a procedure of end like soil testing?

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FYI Spectral Radiance: the rate of stream of light vitality reflected from a surface Measuring the brilliance of light (at a few wavelengths) that is reflected from the plant covering Photodiodes distinguish light force (or brilliance) of specific wavelengths (impedance channels, e.g., red, green, NIR) that are reflected from plants and soil.

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Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) = NIR ref – red ref/NIR ref + red ref (up – down) incredible indicator of plant N take-up Units: N take-up, kg ha - 1

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Sensor Design (1991-96) Micro-Processor, A/D Conversion, and Signal Processing Photo-Detector Optical Filters Ultra-Sonic Collimation March 1996 Sensor Plant and Soil target

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