Social Psychology Lecture 5

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Destinations. Give a record of Darwin\'s hypothesis of the outward appearances of emotion.Describe diverse investigations of the acknowledgment of outward appearances of emotion.Demonstrate a comprehension of Ekman\'s neuro-social model.Give a record of neuropsychological confirmation pertinent to Ekman\'s model.Evaluate reactions of the neuro-social model..

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Social Psychology Lecture 5 Nonverbal Communication of Emotion Facial Expressions of Emotion Jane Clarbour (2003) Room: PS/BOO7 Email: jc129

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Objectives Give a record of Darwin's hypothesis of the outward appearances of feeling. Depict culturally diverse investigations of the acknowledgment of outward appearances of feeling. Exhibit a comprehension of Ekman's neuro-social model . Give a record of neuropsychological proof important to Ekman's model. Assess reactions of the neuro-social model .

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Facial expressions Assumptions C ertain outward appearances of feeling are intrinsic If feelings are communicated comparatively paying little respect to culture or circumstance it proposes that outward appearances are essential advisers for feeling Alternatively Facial expression is logical social pointer of behavioral purpose

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Theoretical clash Universalist Same facial development is related with same feeling all around (inborn) Relativist Facial expressions are found out inside each culture

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Slide 1: What feeling is this?

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Slide 2:

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The inborn speculation DARWIN (1872) recommended that the outward appearance of feeling advanced as a major aspect of the activities fundamental forever: Anger : Frowning to ensure eyes in suspicion of assault

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Surprise Eyebrows raised to open the eyes wide to encourage locate Mouth opens to attract air rapidly to put the body in a condition of availability

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Fear Movements like amazement yet more tense Raised eyebrows Open mouth Fear was more risky for Darwin. Strife between preparation + insurance

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Disgust Lip developments are identified with ousting hostile matter from the mouth. By-items lip development include: Nose wrinkling developments Lines beneath lower eyelid and raising lower eyelid Cheek raising

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Happiness & bitterness Happiness Smiling - raised corners of the mouth Sadness Upturned inward corners of the eyebrows

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Ekman and Friesen (1976) confronts Happiness Fear Disgust Surprise Sadness Anger

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Neurocultural demonstrate (Ekman, 1972) Ekman recommends both natural and social learning perspectives are right Facial influence program Firing of facial muscles (neurologically controlled) Direct (without requirement for perception – Modular) Separate projects for battle or flight Partly inborn/all inclusive Influenced by social standards Learned (fluctuate by culture)

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Interactions Display rules intercede neural motivations Display rules anticipate actuation of facial influence program Display rules forestall activating of facial muscles Reduce the yield of the show Make the show shorter/substitute option show

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Display Rules Learned propensities about controlling the presence of the face (Ekman, 1972) Cultural research proposes 6 fundamental feelings, with intrinsic outward appearance. Modifiable by social show rules Attenuation – (debilitating) Amplification – (overstating) Concealment – (veiling) Substitution – (trade)

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Evidence from Cross-Cultural Studies EKMAN et al (1972) survey of studies in educated societies EKMAN & FRIESEN (1971) And uneducated societies Shows likeness of marks of expression paying little mind to culture Anger Fear Surprise Disgust Happiness Sadness

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Evidence for neuro-social model Ekman, Friesen & Malstrom (1972) Showed 25 American and 25 Japanese Ss a nonpartisan and an anxiety prompting film (a circumcision) Watching film on claim (unconsciously taped) Both gatherings showed same outward appearances Interviewed by individual from possess culture Group contrasts in facial presentations utilized when examining with companions (Cited in Ekman, Freisen, & Ellsworth, 1972)

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Support of Ekman's neuro-social model Neuropsychological confirmation Deaf and visually impaired reviews Rinn (1991) Congenitally daze when made a request to posture essential feelings were judged as less capable than located Ss (fear, outrage, astonish, sicken) No distinction for cleverness Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1973) Congenitally hard of hearing visually impaired demonstrated same fundamental collection of unconstrained outward appearance as "ordinary" controls

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Neuropsychological proof (Rinn, 1991) Separate control frameworks Sub-cortical framework Spontaneous outward appearance S ub cortical Bottom-up "reflexive" expression Universal Cortical framework Mediates willful framework (show rules) Controlled Top-down "devised" expression

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Facial loss of motion: proof for 2 frameworks Subcortical framework Cases of loss of motion of volitional facial development can't move the incapacitated side when advised to grin, yet can in any case grin suddenly on the deadened side when discover something amusing Cortical framework Cases of loss of motion of unconstrained outward appearance can control facial development, however just when told

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Criticisms of the neurocultural show (1) RUSSELL (1991) Language used to depict feeling is not all inclusive Identification of outward appearances from a restricted scope of feeling classes overestimates all inclusiveness Obscures unobtrusive (yet sig.) contrasts between societies' feeling descriptors

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Criticisms of system (Russell, 1994) Forced decision technique bolsters neuro-culture demonstrate Happy Sad Contempt Disgust Fear Angry BUT… Free decision of name for the feeling does not bolster comprehensiveness Ekman ought to have indicated photograph and given his subjects a chance to pick the feeling they were showing

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Alternative understanding (Fridlund, 1994) Japanese grinned out of amiability to questioner (graduate understudy ) Japanese custom to grin when tended to (particularly by an expert) Less discourteous for Americans to watch film when tended to

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Behavioral Ecology V iew ( F ridlund, 1994) Alternative model F acial showcases are basically messages that show behavioral expectation Why 6 or 7 "essential" feelings in addition to 'mixes'? Facial showcases d epend upon social setting Manifestations of social expectation

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Behavioral biology reinterpretation Anger shows: R eadiness to assault Leaked outrage/restrained outrage (ie.Ekman): C onflict about outrage (I need to assault, however I would prefer not to..) Contempt confront: Declaration of prevalence (I can't much trouble with you) Sad face: Take care of me/hold me Happy face: Readiness to play/lets be companions

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Developmental approach Differential feelings hypothesis Cognitive/constructivist approach Attachment hypothesis Social referencing

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Differential Emotions Theory (Izard & Malatesta, 1987 ) 9 fundamental feelings: Interest, satisfaction, pity, astound, outrage, appall, disdain, fear & disgrace 3 segments of feeling: Neural Motor-expressive Mental

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3 segments of essential feelings (Izard & Malatesta, 1987 ) Neural: Each is connected to a specific neural substratum Motor-expressive: Each is communicated in an unmistakable way Mental: Each includes a particular "feeling"

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Cognitive/Constructionist Approach I Sroufe (1979) Affect = undifferentiated conditions of misery/non-trouble Progressive advancement into separated feelings Cognition goes about as focal system

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Cognitive improvement classes of feeling Campos & Barrett (1987) 3 classes of feeling: Primordial: dread and disturb Concurrent objective: outrage and pity (connected to natural objectives) 3) social: disgrace, blame, envy and pride

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Attachment hypothesis Attachment scholars propose grinning and crying are inborn practices whose prime capacity is correspondence Crying signs pain to pick up consideration Smiling signs support of consideration Not generally conceivable to hide outward appearance of feeling

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Summary Ekman Universality of 6 essential feelings Culturally particular presentations Studies of visually impaired youngsters Blind kids additionally demonstrate same outward appearance notwithstanding when no open door for social learning Behavioral environment see isolates feeling from facial showcases

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Behavioral Ecology V iew : Criticisms of fundamental feelings Innate essential feelings see doesn't enough record for "mixes" No compelling reason to represent false/felt shows as all presentations emerge out of social cooperation Facial showcases don't need to compare to the accomplished feeling

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Questions to consider… What proof is there for widespread outward appearance? What is probably going to be more powerful: Evolutionary, inborn capacity of feeling? Social, learned premise of show standards? Are children conceived socially skilled? Do they figure out how to grin to pick up consideration? At what age can babies decipher other's feeling? Are there independent secluded frameworks of effect? What starts things out, comprehension or feeling?