Social liberties

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Social liberties Chapter 6 O'Connor and Sabato American Government: Continuity and Change

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CIVIL LIBERTIES In this part we will cover… Slavery, Abolition, and Winning the Right to Vote, 1800-90 The Push for Equality, 1890-1954 The Civil Rights Movement Other Groups Mobilize for Rights

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What are Civil Rights? Social liberties alludes to the positive demonstrations governments take to ensure against discretionary or unfair treatment by government or people.

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Slavery, Abolition, and Winning the Right to Vote (1800-1890) Slavery and Congress In 1808 Congress banned slave exchange. The South was intensely subject to shabby slave work. The North was getting to be mechanical. In 1820 Missouri connected for confirmation as a slave state. Confirmation of Missouri as a slave state would have given the slave expresses a dominant part in the Senate and was unequivocally restricted in the North.

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Missouri Compromise (1820) Allowed the affirmation of Missouri as a slave state alongside the confirmation of Maine as a free state. Adjust of force was saved however the contention seethed on.

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The Abolitionist Movement Founded by William Lloyd Garrison, the American Anti-Slavery Society (1833) reinvigorated the abolitionist development. Northern enthusiasm for liberation, pushed by abolitionists, disintegrated relations between the North and South. William Lloyd Garrison's Liberator was the voice of abolitionism, calling for prompt liberation of the slaves.

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The Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Slavery was by all account not the only practice that individuals started to address in the early years of America. Exceptionally directed that ladies not stand up out in the open and laws were developed to make ladies peasants. The Seneca Convention accumulated individuals from New York State who trusted that all men and ladies ought to be given similar privileges of citizenship.

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Heightened Tensions (1850s) In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe distributed Uncle Tom's Cabin . In Scott v. Sanford (1857) the Supreme Court decided that slaves were not natives of the United States.

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The Civil War and Its Aftermath: Some Direct Causes for Conflict over bondage (the Justice Taney Court left minimal decision) Conflict over invalidation North's expanding quality in Congress Southern agribusiness v. Northern industry Southern preservationist culture v. Northern dynamic thoughts

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Emancipation Proclamation (1863) Abraham Lincoln, on January 1, 1863, amid the American Civil War, proclaimed all "slaves inside any State, or assigned part of a State ... at that point ... in insubordination, ... should be then, thenceforward, and perpetually free."

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The Civil War Amendments Thirteenth Amendment: banned all types of subjection and automatic subjugation Fourteenth Amendment : ensures parallel assurance of the laws and due procedure to all residents Fifteenth Amendment : particularly gives dark men the privilege to vote Shortly after confirmation the Southern states contrived courses around these changes by passing laws (Black Codes) that limited open doors for dark Americans.

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Black Codes Southern states passed laws (Black Codes) that denied dark Americans from: Voting Sitting on juries Or notwithstanding showing up openly puts

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Jim Crow Laws During the years of Jim Crow, state laws commanded racial division of numerous spots, including: schools eateries lodgings open transportation theaters restrooms Many Jim Crow Laws banned interracial relational unions. These laws stayed as a result all through the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s.

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Intent of the Fifteenth Amendment To stay away from the purpose of the Fifteenth Amendment, Southerners moved to avoid African American voters with: Poll charges Literacy tests Whites-just primaries Grandfather provisions

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Sample Questions from a Literacy Test State of Louisiana One wrong answer indicates disappointment of the test . (10 min) Draw a line around the number or letter of this sentence. Draw a line under the last word in this line. Cross out the longest word in this line. Draw a line around the most brief word in this line. Circle the primary, first letter of the letters in order in this line. In the space beneath draw three circles, one inside the other. Over the letter X make a little cross. Draw a line through the letter beneath that comes most punctual in the letter set. ZVSEDGMKYTPHC Draw a line through the letter underneath that comes toward the end in the letters in order. ZVSEDGMKYTPHC In the space underneath compose the word clamor in reverse and place a dab over what might be its second letter should it have been composed forward. Give your age in days.

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2. The Push for Equality, 1890-1954 The Progressive Era (1889-1920) saw numerous changes in: Child work laws Monopolies Prejudice However, in what numerous call the Supreme Court's breaking point, the Court legitimized the standard of "independent yet equivalent" in its decision Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

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Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Homer Adolph Plessy (7/8 ths white, 1/8 th dark) boarded a prepare in New Orleans and sat in the "whites just" auto. Plessy was captured when he declined to sit in the "hued auto." Plessy sued contending that the Fourteenth Amendment made racial isolation illicit.

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Separate But Equal Doctrine The Supreme Court decided in Plessy that the Louisiana law was sacred and that different however break even with offices for blacks did not abuse the Equal Protection Clause. The high-court Plessy administering prompted to a bounty of Jim Crow laws. By 1914 each Southern state had passed laws that made two separate social orders - one dark, the other white.

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The Lone Dissenter in Plessy Justice John Harlan demonstrated prescience when he composed: " Our Constitution is partially blind, and neither knows nor endures classes among natives. In regard of social equality, all residents are equivalent under the watchful eye of the law. As I would like to think, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, end up being entirely as poisonous as the choice made by this tribunal in the Dred Scott case ."

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Organizations Form to Push for Equality Formation of NAACP (1909) Key Women's Groups NAWSA Temperance League National Consumers' League

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Women are Allowed to Vote Coalition of ladies' gatherings secured the approval of the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) ensuring all ladies the privilege to vote.

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Litigating for Equality The NAACP set up a lawful resistance support (LDF) in 1939 to seek after correspondence in the country's courts. The Court administered in Sweatt v. Painter that it would be unthinkable for the State of Texas to give an equivalent legitimate instruction in a different setting.

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Litigating for Equality In 1950, the Court decided for Mr. Sweatt and constrained the University of Texas Law School to concede him. In Sweatt v. Painter the Supreme Court struck down the arrangement of "separate yet equal" in master's level college instruction and prepared for the historic point choice of Brown v. Leading group of Education in 1954.

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Brown v. Leading group of Education (1954) Linda Carol Brown was not permitted to go to a school a few squares from her home since it was for white understudies. Rather, she needed to walk a few miles to the closest all-dark school.

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Brown v. Leading group of Education (1954) The NAACP contended that the erudite person, mental, and monetary harm that came to pass for dark Americans blocked any finding of fairness under the different yet approach arrangement.

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Brown v. Leading group of Education (1954) Sixty-four years after the Plessy choice the Court struck down the "separate yet equal" principle in the milestone Brown v. Leading body of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) choice.

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3. The Civil Rights Movement The Brown v. Board choice started the advancement of the cutting edge social liberties development.

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"With All Deliberate Speed:" School Desegregation After Brown The Court battled over a cure. After a year, in Brown II (1955), the Court decided that isolated frameworks must be destroyed "with all think speed." Central High and Governor Orval Faubus delineate the long and expensive fight to end isolation.

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The Triumph of Non-Violent Protest In 1955, Rosa Parks tested isolation out in the open transportation. Another youthful minister in Montgomery, Martin Luther King, Jr., was chosen to lead the test against the isolated transport framework. Following a year the blacklist succeeded .

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Non-Violent Protests Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. upheld a peaceful way to deal with driving social change. Lord demonstrated his logic on that of Gandhi, who effectively utilized the peaceful approach in an Indian rebel against the British not long after World War II.

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Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Dr. Ruler established the SCLC in 1957. This gathering utilized peaceful means, for example, Freedom rides, sit-ins, and blacklists were utilized to open isolated lunch counters, holding up rooms, open swimming pools, and other open spots. Regularly neighborhood police assaulted the quiet protestors or picked not to safeguard them from assaulting segregationists.

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Outlawed self-assertive separation in voter enrollment. Banned separation out in the open convenience. Approved the U.S. Equity Department to start claims to integrate schools and open offices. Permitted the central government to withhold stores from unfair state and neighborhood programs. Disallowed segregation on the premise of race, shading, religion, national beginning, or sex. Made the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to screen and implement bans on work segregation.

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The March on Washington In August 1963, more than 250,000 individuals walked calmly in Washington, D.C. to show bolster for President Kennedy�

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