SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY: BANDURA AND MISCHEL

Chapter 12
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Inquiries TO BE ADDRESSED IN THIS CHAPTER . What is the part of psychological procedures in identity? How do individuals learn complex social practices? In what capacity can one deductively dissect people\'s ability for organization, that is, their capacity to impact their own behavior and course of advancement? In what ways do varieties in conduct

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Section 12 SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY: BANDURA AND MISCHEL

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QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED IN THIS CHAPTER What is the part of psychological procedures in identity? How do individuals learn complex social practices? By what method would one be able to experimentally break down individuals' ability for office, that is, their capacity to impact their own behavior and course of improvement? In what ways do varieties in conduct – rather than textures – uncover the way of identity?

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY STRUCTURE 4 basic ideas: Competencies and aptitudes Expectancies and convictions Evaluative principles Personal objectives

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS Individual contrasts may reflect variety in the abilities expected to perform diverse sorts of activities (e.g., loners may need social aptitudes) Competencies include methods for contemplating testing circumstances and the abilities expected to execute arrangements

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS Competencies include 2 sorts of learning: procedural and revelatory : Declarative information = subjective and behavioral limits that can be communicated in words Procedural learning = intellectual and behavioral limits that a man will be unable to state in words

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS The attention on capabilities has 2 suggestions: Context specificity A man may have incredible review aptitudes, however they are of little use in getting a date Psychological change A man who needs fitness in a specific area can obtain versatile abilities through social connection (e.g., displaying)

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS, STANDARDS, AND GOALS People consider the world in 3 ways: People have convictions about what the world truly resembles and what the world will resemble (when convictions include the future, they are named hopes ) People have considerations about what the world ought to resemble - evaluative gauges (i.e., mental criteria for judging goodness and worth) People have musings about what they need to accomplish later on - objectives

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES An essential determinant of activity and feeling is assumptions about the future People have anticipations about numerous things The conduct of others Rewards or disciplines that may take after specific activities Their capacity to adapt to situational difficulties and stress The ability to have diverse desires, and accordingly extraordinary reactions crosswise over circumstances, is versatile

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES The pith of identity lies in the assorted ways that individuals Perceive particular circumstances Develop hopes about future occasions therefore of having varying observations and hopes, individuals show unmistakable conduct designs along these lines, social-intellectual scholars can clarify why two individuals respond contrastingly to a similar domain

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES Self-Efficacy Perceived self-adequacy = desires of one's capacity to start and manage particular activity in a future circumstance People with a high self-viability are probably going to Attempt troublesome errands Persist in their endeavors Remain quiet (versus on edge) amid errand execution Organize undertaking related musings intelligently

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES Self-Efficacy People with low self-viability Do not endeavor coveted exercises Give up when they experience trouble Become on edge amid assignment execution Become "shaken" by neglecting to contemplate the assignment

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES Self-Efficacy Perceived self-adequacy varies from self-regard in 2 ways: Perceived self-viability is not a worldwide build; individuals have distinctive self-adequacy convictions in various circumstances Perceived self-adequacy is not a unique feeling of individual worth, but rather a judgment of what one can do The connection between's self-regard and execution is frail, though the relationship between's apparent self-adequacy and execution is solid

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES Self-Efficacy The contrast between saw self-adequacy and result desires Perceived self-viability = assumptions about one's capacity to start and maintain particular activity in a future circumstance Outcome desires = convictions about the results (i.e., prizes and disciplines) that take after particular activity in a future circumstance by and large, saw self-viability is more essential than result desires in deciding situational conduct

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY BELIEFS AND EXPECTANCIES Self-Efficacy Microanalytic explore methodology Situation-particular measures catch changeability in saw self-viability People rate their level of sureness in performing particular practices in particular circumstances "Do you think you are a decent b-ball player?" versus "How certain are you that you can make no less than 75% of your free tosses?"

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY GOALS Goal = a mental portrayal of the point of an activity or succession of activities The capacity to imagine the future empowers individuals to set objectives and, in this manner, inspire and coordinate their own particular conduct Goals Establish needs from among option fates Contribute to self-direction Organize conduct after some time May vary in subjective significance (e.g., learning versus execution objectives)

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY GOALS Goal frameworks Hierarchically composed Flexible People's objectives for an assignment may contrast from various perspectives Level of test (e.g., passing a course versus getting an A ) Proximity (e.g., losing 1 pound every week versus 12 pounds in the following three months) Proximal objectives have more impact on current conduct than do distal objectives , which permit one to slack off in the present

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY EVALUATIVE STANDARDS Criteria for judging the nature of conduct and that impact feelings and future activity; essential to inspiration and level of execution Personal benchmarks = disguised evaluative norms regularly used to assess the quality one's own conduct Evaluative guidelines frequently trigger enthusiastic responses or self-evaluative responses (e.g., pride versus disappointment)

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY EVALUATIVE STANDARDS Moral conduct Although individuals from society know about its ethical standards, individuals don't generally utilize them to control their own behavior Sometimes individuals separate from their ethical evaluative gauges when they see favorable position in doing as such Disengaging from good evaluative benchmarks permits individuals to act in ways they typically would not

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY EVALUATIVE STANDARDS Osofsky et al. (2005) - by what means can individuals who for the most part trust that murdering isn't right execute detainees? Examined staff at most extreme security detainment facilities who contrasted in their level of inclusion in executions Staff finished a measure of the propensity to withdraw from good evaluative guidelines how much staff showed moral separation fluctuated by their level of contribution in executions Staff who were straightforwardly required in executions demonstrated more elevated amounts of good separation

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS Reciprocal Determinism Behavior, identity, and the earth constitute an arrangement of powers that commonly impact each other after some time Discourse about "inward versus external" or "interior versus outside" strengths neglects to perceive how the individual and condition impact each another (P x E)

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) The working of any framework reflects its parts, as well as how its parts are interconnected Systems with many coordinated parts display intricate and rational working, regardless of the possibility that the parts themselves are moderately basic Personality is such a framework Social-psychological develops are generally basic Social subjective builds communicate in a complex, yet sorted out mold and convey lucidness to identity working

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) Mischel & Shoda (1995) Different components of circumstances actuate diverse subsets of the identity framework If this recommendation is valid, then individuals' considerations, emotions, and conduct ought to change from circumstance to circumstance

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) Shoda et al.(1994) Children at summer camp were seen in different settings (e.g., lodge meeting, play area) Each circumstance was characterized as far as whether kids' cooperations Involved an associate or a grown-up advisor Was certain or pessimistic For every youngster, the recurrence of five sorts of conduct were recorded - verbal animosity, physical hostility, whiny conduct, consistence, and prosocial talk Recordings were made every hour, 5 hours for each day, 6 days for each week, for a month and a half

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) Shoda et al.(1994) Behavior varied in various circumstances Individual contrasts were found in the declaration of each of the five practices Each kid had a particular, stable profile of conduct communicated in particular circumstances Averaging conduct crosswise over circumstances would have veiled unmistakable examples of circumstance conduct connections

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY PROCESS Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) Behavioral marks = particular profiles of circumstance conduct connections "It is this kind of intraindividual steadiness in the example and association of conduct that appears to be particularly vital for a brain science of identity eventually committed to

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