SOC3073 Sociology of Community: Emergence of Cities

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SOC3073 Sociology of Community: Emergence of Cities © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Devotions "And now let Pharaoh search for a recognizing and shrewd man and place him accountable for the place that is known for Egypt. Give Pharaoh a chance to name chiefs over the land to take a fifth of the gather of Egypt amid the seven years of plenitude. They ought to gather all the nourishment of these great years that are coming and hide away the grain under the specialist of Pharaoh, to be kept in the urban communities for sustenance. This sustenance ought to be held available for later for the nation, to be utilized amid the seven years of starvation that will happen upon Egypt, so that the nation may not be destroyed by the starvation." Genesis 41:33-36 (NIV) © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Emergence of Cities References Childe, V. Gordon. 1950. "The Urban Revolution." Town Planning Review 21:4-7. Palen, J. John. 2002. The Urban World . sixth ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fused. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Emergence of Cities Two Theoretical Approaches Human Ecology (Order Paradigm) This hypothetical approach will be utilized for the greater part of this section Political Economy (Conflict Paradigm) © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology Human biology (for our field of study- - urban environment) concentrates the physical biological community of society- - for this situation the urban range © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology Definition of Ecosystem A characteristic unit in which there is a communication of an ecological and a biotic framework - that is, a group together with its natural surroundings. At the upper extraordinary, the entire earth is a world biological system. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology In science, the sythesis of different living things is dictated by the more "predominant" living things. Did you ever see that the vegetation on the ground in a thick woods is very not the same as the vegetation in an open field? Did you realize that the sorts of creatures can be distinctive. Trees are normally an overwhelming life shape - when there is a substantial bunch of trees- - those trees "decide" what sorts of living things are going to "exist together" inside a similar space. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology Human nature concentrates the "environment" of the physical piece of society. Numerous physical parts of human culture have "biological community" connections. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology For instance: When a urban zone develops to a specific size - it gets to be "prevailing" and changes the social exercises in the remote regions well past the legitimate city limits. Look at Mount Vernon's effect on Centerburg instead of Columbus' effect on Centerburg Note: Centerburg is nearer to Mount Vernon than Columbus - and Mount Vernon is the district situate for Knox County (both urban areas are situated inside Knox County)- - which one is more prevailing? © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology Urban environmentalists concentrate urban spatial and social development designs as far as changes in the framework, utilizing an arrangement of classifications known as the " biological complex ." © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex The environmental complex distinguishes the relationship between four ideas or classes of factors P opulation O rganization E nvironment T echnology Sometimes " S ocial" is included as a fifth idea POET or POETS © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET P opulation Refers to the quantity of individuals as well as to development or abatement through either movement or common increment Example: Houston, Texas has become because of migration patterns from the ice belt urban areas (1975 to the present) Also alludes to the piece of the populace by factors, for example, age, sex, and race © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET O rganization (or social structure) The way urban populaces are composed by social stratification, the political framework, and the monetary framework. Case: Houston's political and related expense framework supports populace development through migration © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET E nvironment Refers to the regular habitat and the manufactured condition Natural condition Houston's nonattendance of snow Built condition Includes avenues, parks, structures, and so on © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET T echnology Refers to instruments, creations, thoughts, and strategies that specifically affect on urban development and shape. Illustration: Houston couldn't be the city it is today without both private cars and ventilating. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET Independent and Dependent Variables Each of the four factors is causally associated; contingent upon the way an issue is expressed, each may fill in as either an autonomous (or thing-clarifying) or a reliant (thing-to-be-clarified) variable. In sociological research, association is usually seen as the "reliant variable" to be impacted by the other three "autonomous factors," yet a more advanced perspective of association considers it to be proportionally identified with alternate components of the biological complex. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET Strength and Weakness Strength A noteworthy favorable position of the environmental perplexing as a calculated plan is its straightforwardness, since economy of clarification is an essential logical objective. Shortcoming Perhaps the best restriction of the first environmental complex is that it subsumes social values under the variable of association, while an extremely solid case can be made that culture ought to be a different reference variable in its own privilege. Artists © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Human Ecology: Ecological Complex: POET ICA: POET Worksheet Step One Spend 15 minutes finishing the worksheet Step Two Break into gatherings and burn through 10 minutes sharing reactions from the worksheet Step Three General class examination of worksheet © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Political Economy Political Economic Models Based on the Conflict Paradigm Historic association with Karl Marx's perspective of contention (those who are well off" versus "the poor") © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Political Economy All models have normal attributes Urban development is to a great extent a result of entrepreneur financial arrangement of capital aggregation Conflict between classes Economic abuse of the feeble by the rich and effective Societal communication is commanded by hostile social connections Social improvement is temperamental in social orders with opposing proprietor connections Power disparity is a fundamental component in societal connections © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Political Economy The free enterprise method of generation and capital collection are viewed as being controlled by land theorists and business elites for their private benefit. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Political Economy Suburbanization, for instance, would not be seen as coming about because of individual decisions made conceivable by access to external land through streetcars and cars, but instead as the consider choice of monetary elites to disinvest in the city and to control rural land markets. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Political Economy Strength and Weakness Strength Attention to the monetary elites on political basic leadership and the pretended by land examiners Weakness The supposition that nearby government acts to a great extent at the offering of financial elites, and in this way residents' desires have little effect on development examples or neighborhood government © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Urban Revolution: First and Second The primary city was much more than an expanded town - it was an unmistakable break with the previous, a radical new arrangement of social establishments. . . It was "pre-prominently a social procedure, an expression a greater amount of progress in man's connection with his colleagues than in his collaboration with his condition." © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Urban Revolution: First and Second Once started, the urban insurgency made its own particular condition. Developments that have made extensive settlements conceivable have been because of the city itself: Writing Accounting Bronze The sunlight based schedule Bureaucracy Beginning of science © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Urban Revolution: First and Second Features of the First Urban Revolution Permanent settlement in thick collections Nonagriculturalists taking part in specific capacities Taxation and capital amassing Monumental open structures A decision class The procedure of composing The securing of prescient sciences- - number-crunching, geometry, and space science Artistic expression Trade for essential materials The substitution of connection by living arrangement as the reason for participation in the group (Childe 1950) © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Urban Revolution: First and Second The Second Urban Revolution The reason for this upheaval was - The Industrial Revolution Primary contributing innovation for the Industrial Revolution - in 1767 Watt imagined a usable steam motor © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Urban Revolution: First and Second The second urban insurgency was not the rise of urban communities but instead the progressions that interestingly made it feasible for more than 10 percent of the populace to live in urban spots. © 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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Urban Revolution: The Future Third Revolution Dr. Bolender guesses that the third urb

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