Smoke Monitoring for Prescribed and Wildland Fires and Natural ...

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Smoke Monitoring for Prescribed and Wildland Fires and Natural Events Action Plan(NEAP) Jim Russell Pacific Northwest Region USDA Forest Service 503.808.2956 Interagency Smoke and Air Council Sacramento, California April 23-24 th , 2003

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Categories of Fire Use Prescribed Fire Management Ignited Fire Wildland Fire Use for Resource Benefit Lightning or Human Ignition Managed under a Fire Management Plan Wildfire or Wildland Fire Unwanted and Unplanned Lightning or Human Caused Fire

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Smoke Produces Particulate Matter that Adversely Affects Human Health Increased unexpected losses Aggravation of respiratory or cardiovascular ailment Lung work decrements Increased work misfortune Changes in lung work/structure/regular barrier

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Key criteria contaminations created by terminate Criteria Pollutants National Air Quality Standards Carbon Monoxide Particulate Matter Ozone Nitrogen Oxide Lead Sulfur Dioxide

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Methane NMHC Formaldehyde Acrolein Acetaldehyde 1,3-butadiene Benzene Toluene Benzo(a)pyrene O-xylene m,p-xylene n-hexane Polynuclear natural material Carbonyl sulfide Methyl chloride Other Compounds Emitted by Fire

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(comparative size to dust) (comparable size to fly slag) (comparable size to clean)

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Particulate Matter 10-100 lbs/ton Criteria Pollutant Direct consequences for human wellbeing and welfare Adverse effects on fireline laborers Visibility hindrance

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Relating Fine Particle and Visibility Measurements to Human Health 1 from Idaho Department of Environmental Quality's Wildfire Natural Events Action Plan

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Wildfire PM2.5 Compared to Other US Sources

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Wildfire can radiate as much PM2.5 in a day as a huge point or zone source does in a year (gauges from a province in Washington)

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Objectives For Fire Use under the 10-Year Comprehensive Strategy Restoration of Fire-Adapted Ecosystems Successful Outcome – Fire adjusted biological systems are reestablished, restored and kept up, utilizing proper apparatuses, in a way that will give reasonable ecological, social, and financial advantages. Enhance Fire Prevention and Suppression Successful Outcome - Losses of life are killed, and firefighter and harm to groups and nature from extreme, spontaneous and undesirable wildland fire are diminished. Lessen Hazardous Fuels Successful Outcome – Hazardous energizes are dealt with, utilizing proper instruments, to diminish the danger of spontaneous and undesirable wildland fire to groups and to nature Promote Community Assistance Successful Outcome – Communities at hazard have expanded ability to keep misfortunes from wildland fire and the possibility to look for financial open doors coming about because of medications and administrations.

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Smoke Management Plans as Effective Mitigation Prevent fire utilize smoke from entering and gathering in assigned and smoke touchy territories. ( Question : How would we measure impacts - aggravation, perceivability lessening, and NAAQS Violation under the SMP) Emphasize Emission Reduction Maximize Burning Opportunities Protect Public Health

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How would we guarantee that the Role of Fire in our Fire Dependent Ecosystems is Recognized in our SMP Concept of Managing Total Fire Emissions – Prescribed fire versus fierce blaze additional time. The Goal is the long haul decrease of out of control fire emanations.

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Approaches to Meeting the Goal of Supporting our SMP's Pacific Northwest Smoke Monitoring Network FASTRAC(PFIRS) – Emission Tracking FASTRAC(PFIRS) - Emission Inventory Interstate SMP Coordination - Can our PCs chat with each other?

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Why Monitor Fire Use Smoke ? For Prescribed Fire … Before the smolder, To set up pre-blaze air quality & perceivability levels To settle on contribution to displaying choice emotionally supportive networks (i.e. BlueSky) During the smolder, To help the Fuels Manager. what's more, State Smoke Manager in the choice to demand/allow extra smoldering or to diminish blazing. To figure out whether anticipated smoke scattering, evasion, and blending is exact choices After the blaze, To survey execution of SMP

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Why Monitor Wildland Fire To Protect Public and Firefighter Health by Adding wellbeing authorities in the assurance to wellbeing or security alarms or clearing Determining whether a NEAP is required the for Attainment/Nonattainment Areas Developing Emission Inventories for following Regional Haze and advancement of benchmark Smoke Emission Contributions.

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How Should Smoke Be Monitored? Stationary versus mobile(portable) screens FRM/FEM versus non-FRM QC/QA – how much exertion ? SOPs – how much consistency/preparing ? Examinations and Reporting – to whom, when and for what reason ?

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Who Should Be Monitoring Smoke and For What Purpose? State and Local Health Departments ? YES to secure human wellbeing and open wellbeing Federal Land Managers ? YES to deal with all Fire Use and help states and district air controllers amid times of wildland fire YES to ensure firefighters Private Burners ? US EPA Emergency Response ?

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What Kinds of Smoke Monitoring Can Be Done ? Continuous assessments (e.g.Radiance, DataRam, TEOM, EBAM, BAM-1020, and so forth) Federal Reference Method (e.g., Hi Vol) Short term (60 minutes) Daily normal (PM 10 or PM 2.5 Standard) Annual normal (PM 10 or PM 2.5 Standard) Speciated (e.g, for toxics, for perceivability (IMPROVE), and so forth)

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Who Should Be Communicating Smoke Concentrations to the Public and Their Effects on Human Health and Safety ? State & Local Health Departments ? YES Federal Land Managers ? NO Private Burners ? NO US EPA ? ?

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Real-time Smoke Monitors Evaluated for USDA Forest Optec NGN-3 PM2.5 Nephelometer BGI PQ200 PM2.5 FRM Gravimetric Radiance Research Nephelometer Model M903 Met-One Instruments GT-640 Nephelometer Anderson RTAA 800 Aethalometer

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Real-time Remote Smoke Monitoring System DataRam 4 & ADSI Satellite Modem

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Example of Existing Monitoring Network For Monitoring Wildland and Prescribed Fire Smoke PNW Smoke Monitoring Network (FS/BLM,WA/OR) USDA Forest Service DataRam Cache

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Definition of Monitoring To watch, watch, or check for an extraordinary reason… … . To monitor… … One that cautions… … . A gadget for watching a natural condition or capacity or change… … . An intensely outfitted warship designated to help an educator… … .

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Smoke Monitoring Contract Conditions Forest Service Agrees To: 1. Give physical site to find observing hardware, including temperature controlled sanctuary, AC power, and telephone utility for information recovery. 2. Give site operator(s) that will be accessible, amid and in the wake of checking hardware establishment, for guideline and starting operation preparing. Time responsibility for this stage is around 1 day for each site per administrator. 3. Deal with the d ay-to-day operation taking after Ecology' Air Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan and Procedures .

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Smoke Monitoring Contract Conditions State Agrees to: 1. Test, align, and design gear at Ecology's HQ facility. 2. Help with the establishment of gear at different checking locations. 3. Prepare Forest Service operator(s) yearly at Ecology's HQ facility. 4. Specialized support for every site 5. Routine altering and filing of the information. 6. Furnish Forest Service with site data and preparing. 7. Technical help with information recovery issues related with Ecology gear

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Washington State Air Monitoring Network Particulates Ozone Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide

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Washington State Air Monitoring Network Particulates Ozone Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide FS Particulates

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Key Conclusions The requirement for Smoke Monitoring is noteworthy for both Wildland Fire and Fire Use Activities. It is not just the obligation of the State and County Air Regulators to screen Smoke Impacts produced from Fire Use Activities on Federal Land. Participation and Collaboration are fundamental on the off chance that we are to meet the objective of diminishing aggregate smoke outflow after some time inside our Fire Dependent Ecosystems.

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Key Conclusion (Continued) There should be an accentuation in smoke checking at the geographic range and interstate level in view of the arranged increment in endorsed blazing being proposed by government and state arrive administrators. The expansion in the recurrence and power of wildland flames and the resulting impact on open and firefighter wellbeing must be recognize and managed by those stifling the fire and those attempting to secure general wellbeing nearby the out of control fire. State Monitors target populace focuses and not country regions that government smoldering may affect later on. We should be a decent neighbor with our private land neighbors.

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Other Conclusion and Question? Reference for DataRams site referenced in this presentation.