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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology Fifth version Seeley, Stephens and Tate Slide 2.1 Chapter 18: Urinary System Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urinary Bladder Slide 15.21a Smooth, collapsible, strong sac Temporarily stores pee Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urinary Bladder Slide 15.21b Trigone – three openings Two from the ureters One to the urethra Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urinary Bladder Wall Slide 15.22 Three layers of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle) Mucosa made of transitional epithelium Walls are thick and collapsed If bladder is unfilled Bladder can extend altogether Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urethra Slide 15.23 Thin-walled tube that conveys to the outside of the body by peristalsis Release of pee is controlled by: Internal urethral sphincter (automatic) External urethral sphincter (willful) Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urethra Release of pee is controlled by: Internal urethral sphincter (automatic) External urethral sphincter (deliberate) Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urethra: Gender Differences Slide 15.24a Length Females – 3–4 cm (1 creep) Males – 20 cm (8 inches) Location Females – front to the vagina Males – through the prostate and penis Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Urethra: Gender Differences Slide 15.24b Function Females – just conveys pee Males – conveys pee and semen Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Micturition (Voiding) Slide 15.25 Both sphincter muscles must open The inward urethral sphincter unwinds when bladder extends Activation is from pelvic nerves The outer urethral sphincter must be willfully casual Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Maintaining Water Balance Slide 15.26 Normal measure of water in the human body Young grown-up females – half Young grown-up guys – 60% Babies – 75% Old age – 45% Water levels must be kept up Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Distribution of Body Fluid Slide 15.27 Intracellular liquid (inside cells) Extracellular liquid (outside cells) Interstitial liquid Blood plasma Figure 15.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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The Link Between Water and Salt Slide 15.28 Changes in electrolyte adjust causes water to move starting with one compartment then onto the next Alters blood volume and pulse Can weaken the action of cells Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Maintaining Water Balance Slide 15.29 Water consumption must equivalent water yield Intake Ingested sustenances and liquids Water delivered from metabolic procedures Output Lungs Perspiration Feces Urine generation Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Maintaining Water Balance Slide 15.30 More pee is delivered if water admission is unreasonable Less pee (concentrated) is created if a lot of water are lost Electrolyte fixations must be kept up Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Reabsorption Slide 15.31 Regulation is fundamentally by hormones Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) anticipates unreasonable water misfortune in pee Aldosterone directs sodium particle substance of extracellular liquid Cells in the kidneys and hypothalamus are dynamic screens Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Balance Slide 15.31 Primarily by hormones Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): averts over the top water misfortune Aldosterone : directs sodium particle content ECF Monitored by cells in kidneys and hypothalamus Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Maintaining Acid-Base Balance in Blood Slide 15.33b Most corrosive base adjust is kept up by the kidneys Other corrosive base controlling frameworks Blood cushions Respiration Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base Balance Slide 15.37 Excrete bicarbonate particles if necessary Conserve or create new bicarbonate particles if necessary Urine pH changes from 4.5 to 8.0 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Effects of Aging on the Urinary System: FYI Slide 15.39 There is a dynamic decrease in urinary capacity Output diminishes ~1cc/yr >50 The bladder contracts with maturing Urinary maintenance is basic in guys Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Disorders of the Urinary System: FYI Slide 15.39 Nephritis: irritation of nephrons Protein shows up in pee Kidney stones More basic in guys Glucosuria Sugar in pee: eating routine or diabetes?? Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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Disorders of the Urinary System: FYI Slide 15.39 Cystitis Bacterial contamination of urinary bladder Gout Genetic. Uric corrosive precious stones ppct in joints Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) A sexually transmitted contamination Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. distributed as Benjamin Cummings

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